Title: Enzyme Grafting with a Cofactor-Decorated Metal-Organic Capsule for Solar-to-Chemical Conversion
Author: Jianwei Wei, Liang Zhao, Yu Zhang, Gang Han, Cheng He, Chong Wang, Chunying Duan
Issue&Volume: March 14, 2023
Abstract: Semi-artificial approaches to solar-to-chemical conversion can achieve chemical transformations that are beyond the capability of natural enzymes, but face marked challenges to facilitate in vivo cascades, due to their inevitable need for cofactor shuttling and regeneration. Here, we report on an enzyme grafting strategy to build a metal-organic capsule-docking artificial enzyme (metal-organic-enzyme, MOE) that comprised the self-assembly of a cofactor-decorated capsule and the supramolecular enzyme-recognition features between the enzyme scaffold and the capsule to bypass cofactor shuttling and regeneration. The incorporated NADH mimics within the metal-organic capsule interacted with the imine intermediate that formed from the condensation of the amines and the dehydrogenation of alcohol substrates in the microenvironment to form complexes within the capsule and subsequently served as an in situ-generated photoresponsive cofactor. Upon illumination, the photoresponsive cofactor facilitates efficient proton/electron transport between the inner space (supramolecular hydrogenation) and outer space (enzymatic dehydrogenation) of the capsule to dehydrogenize the alcohols and hydrogenize the imine intermediates, respectively, circumventing the conventionally complex multistep cofactor shuttling and regeneration. The semi-artificial enzyme endows the conversion of diverse types of alcohol to amine products in both aqueous/organic solutions and Escherichia coli with high efficiency, offering a wide range of opportunities for sustainable and environmentally friendly biomanufacturing of commodity and fine chemicals.