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Science、学(问)、哲学、科学

已有 2145 次阅读 2015-5-1 10:19 |系统分类:教学心得

Science、学(问)、哲学、科学


Science---knowledge arranged in an orderly manner, esp. knowledge obtained by observation and testing of facts. (《Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English》)

Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. Ever since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In the West during the early modern period the words "science" and "philosophy of nature" were sometimes used interchangeably, and until the 19th century natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a branch of philosophy.

In modern usage however, "science" most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist began to be applied to those who sought knowledge and understanding of nature. However, "science" has also continued to be used in a broad sense to denote reliable and teachable knowledge about a topic, as reflected in modern terms like library science or computer science. This is also reflected in the names of some areas of academic study such as social science and political science.(Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia)

学---分门别类的有系统的知识:哲学、物理学、语言学。(《新华字典》1998年修订本),国人习惯使用双字语词,不妨称为学问。

科学---?

哲学---?

羊指称羊类动物,山羊、绵羊,公羊、母羊,都是羊。

哲学、科学,都是学问,都是知识体系。

哲学是什么样的学问?是什么样的知识体系?

科学又是什么样的学问?是什么样的知识体系?





陈方正《继承与叛逆——现代科学为何出现与西方》



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