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就要找到For example, for instance和such as的差异!

已有 57404 次阅读 2018-5-27 07:54 |系统分类:教学心得

 

        这三个词英文意思接近,都有“例如”的意思,绝大多数情况下是可以互换的(这样表达上可以避免重复),如

       例句1:I can play quite a few musical instruments, for example, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.

       例句2:I can play quite a few musical instruments, for instance, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.

       例句3:I can play quite a few musical instruments, such as the flute, the guitar, and the piano.

        另外,for example的拉丁文缩写为e.g., 所以也可以这样

       例句4: I can play quite a few musicalinstruments, e.g., the flute, the guitar, and the piano.

 

        如果仅仅停留于共性,而不体会它们之间的差异,那不是学力学的KFC的split hairs风格(语言的任何feature能保留下来,一定有它的历史依据和逻辑原因)。

       

一、For example与such as的区别

 

        首先在语法上,for example是插入语,可以插在句子的任意位置,甚至可以放在句子前面,而such as中such是后置形容词(of the same kind as that already mentioned or being mentioned),所以只能跟在所修饰的主词后面。主词和such之间可以有逗号,也可以没有逗号。没有逗号是"像...之类"之意,与for example的“例如”意思相差甚远(见Such as前面要不要逗号?)。只有在主词和such之间加逗号的such as才有“例如”的意思。

        在语义上, for example有“侧重于给例子让对方明白”的含义,而such as就只是让所修饰的主词丰富起来,例如

        例句5:Wear something simple, for example, a skirt and blouse. (通过举例让受众理解“穿简单”)。

        例句6: A lot of my friends were there, John and Linda, for example.

        例句7:Mary has many hobbies, such as swimming,bowling, and running.

 

        也正因为上述语义的差异,for example可以放在句首,通过它后面的句子,帮助受众理解它之前的“整个句子”,而such as 只能在所修饰主词后面。

        例句8:My new roommate is awful. For example, she keeps using my toilet paper.

        例句9:Children should eat less junk food. For example, they should avoid eating burgers and chips.

        例句10:Children should avoid eating junk food, such as burgers and chips.

       

        不引起歧义时, such as和主词之间可以有短语,如

        例句11: We all face different stresses from every aspect everyday, such as family, occupation, child-rearing, and so on;

但有时这样做会引起歧义,如

        例句12:Some of the European languages come from Latin, for example, French, Italian and Spanish. (可能误解为French, Italian and Spanish是Latin的具体示例)

        例句13:Some of the European languages, such as French, Italian and Spanish, come from Latin. (这便没有歧义了,所以such as应尽量靠在所修饰的主词后面)

        在书写上, 作为插入语, for example的前后都有“,”,除非在句首(无前面的“,”)或句末(无后面的“,”)。“such as”之后并无逗号。

 

二、For example与 for instance的区别

        二者之间差异很小,但是for example 比for instance用得多,所以选取前者更保险。

        例句14:The situation is slowly improving. Last month, for example, the company achieved record sales in Europe.

        例句15: It was obvious that her memory was failing. For example, she would often forget where she put her car keys.

        例句16:Poor balance is a problem for a lot of older people, like my grandmother, for instance.

        例句17:Mobile devices are becoming less expensive. Sophisticated smartphones, for instance, can now be purchased for less than $100.

       

        如果非要找出他们的差异,体会 example 和instance的差异。

        例句18:There are many instances of…有许多实例

        例句19:There are many examples of…有许多示例

        For example是侧重通过示例(更倾向于项目列表),让受众好理解,而for instance侧重给出一个佐证的案例(一个事件经过)。

        例句20:My pantry is stocked with mostly canned foods. For example, I have canned soups, beans, corn, and tuna, among others.

        例句21:I get the most embarrassed when I involuntarily make a sound in public. For instance, one time last week at the bank, I let a boisterous burp out, without even realizing that there was a crowd of people around me who could hear me.


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