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李紫源,肖文交等——西天山造山带晚古生代构造演化和成矿作用

已有 606 次阅读 2021-7-2 10:30 |个人分类:论文推广|系统分类:论文交流

西天山造山带晚古生代构造演化和成矿作用

李紫源1,2 肖文交1 谢明财2,3 韩春明3

1. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所,岩石圈演化国家重点实验室 北京 1000292. 中国科学院大学地球科学学院 北京 1000493. 中国科学院矿产资源研究院重点实验室 北京 100029

 

摘 要 西天山是我国重要的内生金属矿床集中区,其矿种包括有铜、镍、钼、铁、金、锌等,这些矿产在前寒武纪和显生宙的地质历史中分别形成了大量的成矿体系和矿床类型。通过对西天山域成矿地质背景的研究,厘定了5种内生金属矿床类型:1)岩浆型铜镍矿床;2)斑岩铜钼矿床;3)火山岩型铁矿床;4)浅成低温热液型金矿床;5)造山型金铜矿床。典型矿床有菁布拉克铜镍矿床、达巴特铜钼矿床、喇嘛苏铜矿床、敦德铁锌矿床、备战铁矿床、阿希金矿、伊尔曼得金矿床和卡特巴阿苏金矿床等大型和超大型矿床。从构造上看,这些矿床的发育与西天山造山带的增生和聚集作用密切相关。晚古生代铜镍矿床的形成经历了3个主要阶:早志留世,南天山洋岩石圈北向俯冲于伊犁—中天山地块之下,形成与铜镍矿床有关的菁布拉克岩体;早-晚石炭世,由于北向俯冲作用,形成了斑岩型铜金矿床、低温热液型金矿床和火山岩型铁矿床;晚石炭世早期,南天山洋壳可能被消耗殆尽,导致了塔里木克拉通与南天山造山带的碰撞。大花岗岩体广泛分布于北天山增生楔和伊犁—中天山地块,并伴随造山型的金矿床形成。

关键词 成矿体系 造山带 成矿动力学背景 西天山


Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and mineralization in the western Tianshan orogenic belt

 Li Ziyuan1,2 Xiao Wenjiao1 Xie Mingcai2,3 Han Chunming3

1.State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029;2. College of earth science, University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049;3.Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029

Abstract The West Tianshan Mountain is an important concentration area of endogenetic metal deposits inChina. These metal deposits include copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, gold, zinc, etc. These minerals formed a large number of metallogenic systems and deposit types respectively in the geological history of Precambrian and Phanzoic. Based on the study of metallogenic geological background in the West Tianshan region, five types of endogenous metal deposits have been determined: 1) Magmatic copper-nickel deposits; 2) Porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit; 3) Volcanic type iron deposit; 4) Epithermal gold deposit; 5) Orogenic gold-copper deposit. The typical deposits include Jingbulake Cu-Ni deposit, Dabate Cu-Mo deposit, Lamasu Cu deposit, Dunde Fe-Zn deposit, Beizhan Fe ore deposit, Axi Au deposit, Yilmend Au deposit and Katbaasu Au deposit. Structurally, the development of these deposits is closely related to the accretion and collision of the Western Tianshan orogenic belt. The formation of these deposits went through three main stages as follows. In the Early Silurian, the southern Tianshan lithosphere subducted from the north under the Yili to the Middle Tianshan block, and the Jingbulake rocks related to the copper and nickel deposits was formed; In the Early and Late Carboniferous, due to northward subduction, porphyry copper and gold deposits, low temperature hydrothermal gold deposits and volcanic iron deposits were formed. Early in the Late Carboniferous, the southern Tianshan oceanic crust may have been exhausted, leading to the collision between the Tarim Craton and the southern Tianshan orogenic belt. The large granite is widely distributed in the North Tianshan accretion wedge and the Yili-Middle Tianshan block, and is accompanied by orogenic gold deposits.

Keywords Metallogenic system, Orogenic belt, Geodynamic background, Western Tianshan

 广义的西天山地区位于奎屯南部的北天山与库车北的南天山所夹持的地理范围,该区域包括有:北带的依连哈比尔尕山、阿尔套山、别珍套山、汉吉尕山、科古琴山、博罗科努山;中带为伊犁盆地和阿吾拉勒山和乌孙山;南带为那拉提山、哈尔克山、额尔宾山、霍拉山、黑英山(张作衡等,2008)。构造上处于哈萨克斯坦—准噶尔板块和塔里木板块的交汇部位,是我国重要的铜、金、镍、铁、钼等矿产富集区之一(王作勋等,1990;毋瑞身等,1998;隗合明,1999a,1999b;王志良等,2006)。

西天山矿集区以盛产铁矿(备战、智博、敦德)而著名,区内铁矿勘查始于20世纪70年代(张振亮等,2017);80年代以来,新疆维吾尔自治区地质矿产勘查局、有色地质勘查局、国家科技攻关项目(国家“305”项目)和国家基础研究项目等(973项目)先后在该区开展地质工作(王核等,2000;王庆明等,2000;高俊等,2009),取得了金、铁等矿产找矿的重大突破;区域内已先后发现有阿希金矿(沙德铭等,2005;翟伟等,2006a2006b;张作衡等,2007a2007b)、卡特巴阿苏金矿床(杨维忠等,2015;刘云华等,2016)、达巴特铜矿(张作衡等,20082009)、喇嘛苏铜矿(张东阳等,2010;解洪晶等,2013)、莱利斯高尔铜钼矿床(王志良等,2006)。 阿吾拉勒铁矿带的找矿进展,使西天山迅速成为新疆重要的大型铁矿开发基地,同时也是我国十大重要矿产金属矿产资源接替基地(张振亮等,2017)。本文是在前人工作的基础之上,结合本课题组两年来的工作成果,对研究区金、铜镍和铁等内生金属矿床的主要地质特征、成矿物理化学条件和形成的地球动力学背景作初步总结,旨在推动该区十三五乃至今后区域成矿学研究和地质勘查工作的进展。


image1.png

图 1 西天山地质矿产简图(据张作衡等,2008修改)

Fig.1 Generalized geological map of the western Tianshan Orogen, NW China, showing the locations of important mines (modified after Zhang et al., 2008)



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