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一点投稿经历

已有 15218 次阅读 2011-11-26 00:00 |系统分类:论文交流| 引力, 奇点, 2011, 审稿意见

My work: Discussion on Mass in a Gravitational Field has been published on International Journal of Physics, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 5, 110-114
http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/5/3/index.html

The work proposes:  Mass of an object decreases with it close to the center of a gravitational field.
△U = △mc^2

Where U is potential energy, m is mass, c is light speed

We wish the hypothesis provides some ideas for the gravitational singularity, and make the meaning of gravity more accessible. For three years, I really appreciate that many Editors help to improve my work, and sincerely thank for that scientists worldwide examine my work carefully, their opinions are very precious, and have led to significant improvements. I must say thanks again. I respond editors, and try to explore the prospect of the work so that motivate new ideas.

1. The conclusion originates in from gravitational field, in view of E=△mc^2 can be applied to chemical reactions and nuclear reaction, the E equal to change of potential energy, thus, the conclusion might be extended to electromagnetic force, weak force and even nuclear force, and explain the source of mass loss. If it is the fundamental law of the universe, it might help us to understand the physical world and explore the origin of mass and the nature of field. People always want to use one theory to describe the microscopic world and the macroscopic world.
2. Why the universe is homogeneous on large scales? Why does the matter not concentrate to some point? What are the quasars? How their extraordinary redshift come about? We wonder if MF could answer some of the issues. A super massive star has powerful gravitational field which will cause time dilation and distance extending (light speed remains c), radiation capacity of the star declines, when it collapses, it will hardly luminous (a black hole). We think that observations of far infrared band might be conducive to study of black holes, the singularity might be not. MF indicates that matter cannot go through the schwarzschild radius in the form of mass, it might be a bad news for the big bang.
3. Subatomic particle cannot be seen. There is a lot of puzzle in the field. MF might provide a new research tool in the field. For example, like the advance of the Mercury's perihelion, MF indicates that spectrum theory has a tiny error with the actual, especially in ultraviolet band. MF might be provided a new equation for the research of the fine structure of atomic spectrum,and takes into account the fine structure of atomic spectrum in magnetic field or electric field. The Standard Model deviate tests at high energy region. MF might be more obvious in strong interaction. We look forward to explore some non-accelerators, for example, some physical and chemical experiments in a strong electric field or in the border of the electric field. We think that two magnets attract and close each other. A certain external work can be supplied in the process. Mass of the magnets would be decreased if a balance is accurate enough.
4. We spent ten years studying moving clocks. Two clocks (327.68 MHz Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillators) were installed on both ends of a revolving bar. The two clock signals were transmitted into a mixer in the middle of the bar to get a beat frequency (53Hz). The sine wave of the beat frequency was adjusted to a square wave. A high speed counter (80MHz) was used to count the width of the square waves. When the bar rotated in a horizontal plane on the ground, the count values were always the same in different directions (Earth magnetic field is shielded, the clocks are not interfered). The results indicate that there is no difference between the clocks. The results have nothing to do with the speed of the earth in the universe. In view of a lot of high precision experiments at various elevations nowadays, we think that physics laws are the same in all reference systems is sustainable. Experiments at different gravitational radius should get the same charge to mass ratio. Thus, the elementary charge should decrease in a gravitational field. MF is universal, the elementary charge also should decrease in a electric field. In other words, the process that an electron enters a nucleus, will cause two changes. First, their respective mass decrease. Second, their respective charges decrease. Changes in mass can be verified from the mass-energy equation. Decrease of elementary charge in a gravitational field can explain the gravitational redshift. Exploratory experiment: change of atomic energy level can be observed when a electric field is applied atoms of a receiver of a Mossbauer spectrometer (The atoms should embed in surface of a ceramic).
5. The detection of gravitational waves: If MF can unify the four fundamental forces, research of gravitational waves can use achievements of electromagnetic waves and greatly amplify the research process. We suggest increasing the size of gravitational wave detectors. Perhaps we will become accustomed to study gravitational field from outside, as with electromagnetic waves. An experiment as fig. 4 in my work is significant. It might be a method of research gravitational waves indirectly. The direct method is two mass close and separate at a high-speed. The experiment might be used to measure the radiation efficiency of gravitational waves, so as to determine the dynamic equation in a gravitational field. Once we have carried out a test. A gyro is installed lying on a rotary table. Two motors are used, the one (M1) drives the rotary table revolves, the other one (M2) drives the gyro spin (it is necessary, a gyro will lose speed fast when direction of its axis is forced to change). The power dissipation that the two motors are powered on simultaneously is P12. Next, M1 is powered on, M2 motionless, the power dissipation is P1. Then, M2 is powered on, M1 motionless, the power dissipation is P2. We can obtain P12=6(P1+P2). The difference of power dissipation is great. The coppery gyro does not heat. Where the lost energy go? Of course, the test is still very primitive.
6. Exploration of gravity: Based on MF, an object is attracted by gravity, because its microscopic particles trend to lower state and release energy. People expect to reduce gravity in some way, for example, local spatial structure would be changed by a strong electric field, or the quantum level of the particles would be increased by ultra low temperature, and other ways. We think: a meteorite is captured by a gravitational field, and an electron is captured by an atom. Both of them send out light, and mass of the two systems have reduced. The both might be the same thing if the rule of quantization were not enforced. Perhaps, people could reduce gravity after fully understand the gravity some day.
7. Exploration of ultra-low temperature: Based on MF, atoms would lose a part of mass and release energy when they enter into a electric field, when the energy has been released, suddenly, dropping the electric field, the atoms need add mass and absorb heat, it is possible to achieve or overstep the absolute zero.
8. Light and electromagnetic fields: We have tried a number of experiments, and have found that various clocks (oscillators) are strongly affected in an electric or magnetic field. We guess that the light speed slows down in a glass relate to the atomic electric field, and all field will change the light speed and directions.. We wish to study light speed in a strong electric or magnetic field, and the principle of Michelson-Morley experiment may be referred.
9. Example device: a. scan of the gravitational field: a high-frequency oscillator keep synchronized with satellite signal (voltage-controlled oscillator, divider, phase comparator, feedback), the high-frequency signal and another local high-frequency signal are fed into a mixer, and the output beat note signal could be monitored by a mixer. The device can be placed on a ship to scan the gravitational field of the earth. b. A number of laser beams are adjusted, electric field in local space are superimposed and delayed, to explore to reduce the ignition energy of nuclear fusion. c. Mf indicates strong electric field or strong magnetic field can decrease the  energy of combination reaction or temperature, this might have a wide range of applications. Etc. The relevant principle shall not be used for any military purposes.
The work also appears on
http://www.paper.edu.cn/index.php/default/releasepaper/content/201012-174
And    http://vixra.org/abs/1011.0075

△U=△mc^2
U-势能,m-质量,c-光速
我们试图回应编辑,展望一设想前景以激发新的
思路。
1. 这一设想来自于引力场,鉴于 E=△mc^2 适用于化学反应和核反应,这里 E 等于势能的变化,因此,这一设想有可能推广到电磁力、弱力甚至核力,从而解释质量亏损的根源。如果这是自然界的基本规律,有利于人们理解物质世界,探索质量起源和场的本质。长久以来,人们想用一个理论描述微观粒子和宏观天体
2. 为什么宇宙在大尺度下是均匀的,而不是向某些点集中?类星体到底是什么?它们的超常红移是如何产生的?我们思考MF能否解答其中一些问题。超大质量的恒星具有强大的引力场,这使得其附近时间变慢和距离变长(光速仍然为c),其辐射能量能力下降,如果进一步坍塌,亦或不能发光(黑洞),远红外波段观测或许利于研究黑洞,中心不会有奇点。MF预示物质不能以质量形式穿越史瓦西半径,对大爆炸也许不是个好消息。
3. 亚原子粒子不可见,这一研究领域疑难很多。MF有可能做为微观研究的一种办法。例如,类似于水星近日点的进动,MF预示光谱理论与实际有微小的偏差特别是紫外波段。MF有可能提供一个新方程研究原子光谱的精细结构,同时考虑到磁场或电场中原子光谱的精细结构。标准模型在高能区发生偏离,MF在强相互作用中有可能更加明显。我们期望探索一些非加速器试验,例如,强电场或其边缘的一些物理或化学实验。我们思考:两块磁铁吸合靠近,这一过程对外做功,磁铁的总质量应该减小,如果一个天平足够精确。 
4. 我们花费十年时间研究地面运动的钟,两只时钟(327.68 MHz恒温晶体振荡器)安装在一个旋杆的两端,两路信号传输到中点的混频器从而得到53Hz的拍频信号。正弦波拍频信号被整形成方波,一个80MHz的高速计数器用来计数方波的宽度。当旋杆在地面水平旋转时,不同方向得到的计数值相同(屏蔽地球磁场以不干扰时钟)。结果表明:这两只时钟是没有差异的,与地球在宇宙中的运动无关。考虑当今许多高精度实验不在同一海拔高度,我们认为“物理规律在所有参考系中都相同”是可信的。不同引力半径的实验应该得到相同的荷质比。那么,基本电荷在重力场中减小了。MF具有普遍性,那么电荷在电场中也减小。换句话说,电子进入原子核这一过程,有两个变化,首先,它们各自的质量减小了,其次,它们各自的电荷也减小了。质量变化可以从质能方程得到证实。引力场中电荷减小可以解释引力红移。探索性实验:利用穆斯堡尔谱仪,施加电场于其接受原子,以观察原子能级的变化(接受原子嵌入陶瓷表面)。
5. 引力波探索:如果MF有助于统一4种基本力,引力波研究可以借鉴电磁波成果,加速其研究进展。我们建议增加引力波探测器的尺度。也许,我们将逐渐习惯从引力场之外研究它,就像对待电磁波一样。文章中图4的实验很有意义,这可能是一种间接研究引力波的方法,更直接的方法是两个质量块高速靠近和分离。这一实验可以测定引力波辐射效率,从而确定引力场动态方程。我们当年的一个试验尝试:一个陀螺横躺着安装在回转台上。用两个电机,一个电机(M1)驱动回转台旋转,另一个电机(M2)同轴驱动陀螺旋转(这是必要的,改变陀螺方向会导致陀螺急剧减速)。两个电机同时通电总功耗为P12。接下来,仅其中一个电机供电(另一个静止),两个电机的功耗为P2+P2,则:P12=6(P1+P2)。这种功耗差异是很大,铜质陀螺并不发热,这些能量哪里去了?当然,这个实验还很简陋。
6. 重力探索:基于MF,物体被重力场吸引,因为它的微观粒子具有向低能态跃迁的趋势,并释放能量。人们希望尝试减小重力。例如,用强电场改变空间结构,超低温加大微观粒子的量子能级,等等。我们思考:一个陨石被重力场俘获,一个电子被原子俘获,两者都会发光,质量都会减少,这也许是一回事,如果量子化规则不起作用。也许人们充分了解引力后可以减轻重力。
7. 超低温探索:基于MF,原子在电场中要丢失部分质量且释放多余的能量,等待能量释放后,这时,突然撤去电场,由于原子要补充质量,吸收热量,有可能实现或超越绝对0度。
8. 光与电磁场:我们尝试过一些实验:电场或磁场强烈地影响各种时钟(振荡器),猜想光速在玻璃中变慢与原子电场有关,并且所有的场都会改变光速和方向。我们希望进行强电场或磁场与光速的实验,原理可参考 Michelson-Morley实验。
9. 装置举例: a. 重力场扫描,高频振荡器保持和卫星信号同步(压控振荡器,分频,相位比较,反馈),此高频信号和本地高频振荡器被送入混频器,监测混频输出。放在轮船上可以扫描地球重力场。 b. 调整多束激光,实现局部空间的电场的叠加和延时,探索降低核聚变点火能量。C. Mf 预示强电场或强磁场可降低化合反应能量或温度,这方面可能有着广泛的应用。等等。有关原理不得用于军事目的。
)
********
I do not know how to choose a journal. I show some of comments for reference. Perhaps, the valuable comments can help us to think about some issues.
Some results in 2011
Initial Data Submitted 27 Jul 2011(We omit the submission process).
Editor's decision: 22 Sep 2011
Dear Dr. Zhan Likui,
I have received the decision from the Editor on your manuscript, IJTP5102 "Is Mass Constant in a Gravitational Field?"
We thank you for your kind offer to let us publish your manuscript, but regret to inform you that we have decided not to accept your offer. The paper did not undergo technical review and is not being declined for any technical error. We wish you every success in finding an alternative place of publication.
With best regards,
International Journal of Theoretical Physics
(  ) Editor in Chief
********
Submission Data 26th January 2011
(We appreciate the improvements that the Editors have proposed ).
Editor's decision: 7th March 2011
Dear Dr Likui,
Many thanks for your submission to Scientific Reports. However, we regret that we cannot consider it for publication.
Thank you for the opportunity to consider your work. I am sorry that we cannot be more positive on this occasion. Best regards,
(  ) Editorial Board Member
Scientific Reports
********
Early comments:
In the present case, we appreciate that your study of gravitation may provoke useful discussion with others working in this area of physics. But I regret that we are unable to conclude that the paper provides the sort of solid conceptual advance in scientific understanding that we look for, for publication in Nature Physics -- one that would be likely to excite the immediate interest of researchers in a broad range of other areas of physics. We therefore feel that the present paper would find a more appropriate outlet in a specialist journal, rather than Nature Physics.
I am sorry that we cannot respond more positively, and I hope that you will rapidly receive a more favourable response elsewhere.
Yours sincerely
(  ) Chief Editor, Nature Physics
********
Dear Dr. LiKui,
We regret to inform you that the above referenced manuscript is not considered suitable for publication in the Physical Review. As a family of research journals, the Physical Review publishes articles in which significant advances in physics are reported. Such advances must be placed in the context of recent developments in research. There is no discussion in your manuscript of how this work relates to other current physics research and adequate references to the recent research literature are lacking.
Your manuscript therefore is too pedagogical for the Physical Review. We must suggest that you submit it to another, more suitable journal.
Yours sincerely,
(  )
Physical Review A
********I append a referee to respond to our readers:********
Submission Data 01-Oct-2010
Dear Dr. Likui,
Your manuscript entitled "Is Mass Constant in a Gravitational Field?" has been successfully submitted online and is presently being given full consideration for publication in Annalen der Physik.
Your manuscript number is andp.201000128.  Please mention this number in all future correspondence regarding this submission.
You can view the status of your manuscript at any time by checking your Author Center after logging into http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/andp .  If you have difficulty using this site, please click the 'Get Help Now' link at the top right corner of the site.
Thank you for submitting your manuscript to Annalen der Physik.
Sincerely,
(  ) Editorial Office, Annalen der Physik
Editor's decision: 8-Nov-2010
Dear Dr. Likui,
I write you in regards to Manuscript ID andp.201000128 entitled "Is Mass Constant in a Gravitational Field?" which you submitted to Annalen der Physik.
In view of the criticisms found at the bottom of this letter, your manuscript has been definitely denied publication in Annalen der Physik.
Thank you for considering Annalen der Physik for the publication of your research.
Sincerely,
(  ) Editor, Annalen der Physik
REFEREE(S)' COMMENTS TO AUTHOR:
Reviewer: 1
Comments to the Author (note this will be transmitted to the Author)
The paper is incorrect and mixes up a number of concepts.
(i) The rest mass is a local concept in special relativity. For particle with nonzero rest mass, in the locality of any world point (4-dimentional space-time point), general relativity reduced to special relativity, and one could use special relativity to treat problems. In special relativity, one is allowed to use any noninertial frame to treat any problem according to convenience. In special relativity, rest mass of a particle is constant and rest mass of photon is constrained by experiments to be nearly zero (See, Photon and Graviton Mass Limits by Alfred Scharff Goldhaber and Michael Martin Nieto, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 939-979 (2010)).
(ii) Another concept is energy. Energy is a concept in special relativity. It is not a scalar, but the time component of a vector. Therefore it depends on frames. In general relativity, there is no general concept of energy for an extended system. Only in special situations, a working (effective) energy concept can be defined (for example, isotropic homogeneous universe, average energy density for gravitational waves for length scale larger than the typical wavelength of gravitational waves and smaller than the curvature radius). (See Misner, Thorne, Wheeler: Gravitation 1973). In general relativity, there could be a useful concept of quasi-local energy; Please see arXiv:0909.2754, Optimal Choices of Reference for Quasi-local Energy by Chiang-Mei Chen, Jian-Liang Liu, James M. Nester, Ming-Fan Wu,and references therein.
(iii) The author sometimes mixed up coordinate velocity with physical velocity. In defining physical velocity, one needs to first define consistently the clocks and rods.
A few specific points:
p.2 Photon propagation equation is needed for photon energy from one place to the other place, this is lacking in the manuscripts
p.4 For the formulas on this page, force also needs to be transformed.
“The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be transferred from one form to another but cannot be vreated or destroyed”; this is true in special relativity; in the general situation in general relativity, this statement cannot even be formulated.
How to lift an object needs to be formulated.
********
We are grateful the editors and the reviewers.  
In view of general relativity has been referred in the past, we come to realize the work  is not incompatible with general relativity. we try to express our view. General relativity based on local reference frame. And a local experiment always gets the same results. The work based on a reference point in outer space. For example, change of a clock could not be found in local experiments in a gravitational field, however, change of a clock  in different radius in a gravitational field can be found from outer space. We suggest that concept of external work might be easy to understand. The two are not contradictory. For example, light from centre of a galaxy has more redshift. Similarly, more external work is needed when a satellite comes from the centre of the galaxy. It might be beneficial to develop theory of gravity. I am sorry I cannot express myself in English very well.

In fact, We have received an offer from famous journal once, later, significant revisions have be requested. I am sorry for my radical response on this occasion.


The notion of gravitational singularity is constantly changing.


(Black hole theory) on Web of Science.1995-2014(Jun.14)
 =SCI-EXPANDED, CCR-EXPANDED, IC.



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