Science Blog of Dr. Yuan分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/albumns This blog is mainly on Molecular molecular modelling and simulations

博文

2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry announced

已有 2083 次阅读 2015-10-7 17:53 |系统分类:科研笔记

from http://www.nobelprize.org/

2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

7 October 2015

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to

Tomas Lindahl
Francis Crick Institute and Clare Hall Laboratory, Hertfordshire, UK

Paul Modrich
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA

and

Aziz Sancar
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"



The cells’ toolbox for DNA repair

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 is awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for having mapped, at a molecular level, how cells repair damaged DNA and safeguard the genetic information. Their work has provided fundamental knowledge of how a living cell functions and is, for instance, used for the development of new cancer treatments.

Each day our DNA is damaged by UV radiation, free radicals and other carcinogenic substances, but even without such external attacks, a DNA molecule is inherently unstable. Thousands of spontaneous changes to a cell’s genome occur on a daily basis. Furthermore, defects can also arise when DNA is copied during cell division, a process that occurs several million times every day in the human body.

The reason our genetic material does not disintegrate into complete chemical chaos is that a host of molecular systems continuously monitor and repair DNA. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 awards three pioneering scientists who have mapped how several of these repair systems function at a detailed molecular level.

In the early 1970s, scientists believed that DNA was an extremely stable molecule, but Tomas Lindahl demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible. This insight led him to discover a molecular machinery, base excision repair, which constantly counteracts the collapse of our DNA.

Aziz Sancar has mapped nucleotide excision repair, the mechanism that cells use to repair UV damage to DNA. People born with defects in this repair system will develop skin cancer if they are exposed to sunlight. The cell also utilises nucleotide excision repair to correct defects caused by mutagenic substances, among other things.

Paul Modrich has demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. This mechanism, mismatch repair, reduces the error frequency during DNA replication by about a thousandfold. Congenital defects in mismatch repair are known, for example, to cause a hereditary variant of colon cancer.

The Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2015 have provided fundamental insights into how cells function, knowledge that can be used, for instance, in the development of new cancer treatments.




https://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-355217-926226.html

上一篇:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine shared by Chinese
下一篇:A piece of Science Art
收藏 IP: 212.27.185.*| 热度|

3 徐旭东 许培扬 crossludo

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

全部作者的精选博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2022-11-30 14:56

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部