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Nature Communications:山羊草胚胎发生早期根组织程序性消除B套染色体

已有 1012 次阅读 2020-6-3 08:40 |个人分类:每日摘要|系统分类:论文交流

Supernumerary B chromosomes of Aegilops speltoides undergo precise elimination in roots early in embryo development

第一作者Alevtina Ruban

第一单位德国莱布尼兹植物遗传与作物研究所

通讯作者Andreas Houben


 Abstract 


背景回顾:Not necessarily all cells of an organism contain the same genome. Some eukaryotes exhibit dramatic differences between cells of different organs, resulting from programmed elimination of chromosomes or their fragments. 


主要内容:Here, we present a detailed analysis of programmed B chromosome elimination in plants.


试验:Using goatgrass Aegilops speltoides as a model, we demonstrate that the elimination of B chromosomes is a strictly controlled and highly efficient root-specific process.


开始:At the onset of embryo differentiation B chromosomes undergo elimination in proto-root cells.


过程:Independent of centromere activity, B chromosomes demonstrate nondisjunction of chromatids and lagging in anaphase, leading to micronucleation.


最终:Chromatin structure and DNA replication differ between micronuclei and primary nuclei and degradation of micronucleated DNA is the final step of B chromosome elimination.

Fig. 5 Schematic comparison of the cellular process of B elimination with the process of post-meiotic B chromosome drive reveals striking similarities.



生物学意义推测:This process might allow root tissues to survive the detrimental expression, or overexpression of B chromosome-located root-specific genes with paralogs located on standard chromosomes.


 摘  要 


并不是每个细胞都必须包含一模一样的全基因组信息。一些真核生物不同器官中的细胞之间存在明显的差异,而这种差异来自于这些细胞程序性消除了某条染色体或染色体上的某个片段。本文中,作者研究了植物中程序性B染色体消除的详细机制。通过利用山羊草(Aegilops speltoides)作为模式植物,作者发现B染色体消除是一个受到严格控制,并且十分高效的根组织特异性进程。在胚胎刚开始分化时,根原始细胞中的B染色体就开始进入消除进程。独立于着丝粒的活性,B染色体显示出染色单体不分离以及后期滞后,从而导致微核化。微核与主核之间存在染色质结构和DNA重复的差异,而微核化的DNA降解是B染色体消除的最终步骤。该进程可能使得根组织能够免受那些在主染色体上存在同源基因,而定位于B染色体上的同源拷贝的有害表达或过量表达。


 通讯作者 


**Andreas Houben**


研究方向:

植物染色体的功能、调控与演化


doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16594-x


Journal: Nature Communications

First Published: June 02, 2020



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