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学术论文中引用证据(Evidence)和实例(Examples)时好用的41个英语句型

已有 6482 次阅读 2019-2-15 08:55 |系统分类:论文交流| 论文写作, 英语学术论文

Tips on how to use evidence and support arguments in research papers

构建我们研究叙述的一个重要组成部分是提供证据和实例。事实上,作者在论文中所提供的说明一方面能帮助强化文章的结论,但有时不恰当的表达也可能让读者对论文结论心生怀疑,因此使用适当且符合逻辑的句子引导读者理解内容是撰写论文时十分必要的能力。

介绍证据和实例的时机

证据和实例为我们的说明打下一个稳定的基础。没有实例辅助的话,论文的结论缺乏可信度。然而不论是流水帐般的实例验证,还是无法提供任何材料或信息的来源,二者是一样糟糕的。因此,当你介绍实例时,需要确保适时睿智的挑选证据,并使用适当和清楚的句子来说明这个实例来论证你的结论。 当你在写作论文有以下几种需要时,你应该要介绍你的实例论证:

  • 说明“非普遍知识”的内容时 ;

  • 根据某个数据来引导结论、推论或说明涵义时;

  • 需要澄清一个先前的叙述,使用范例说明能够更加清楚的时候;

  • 需要找出某个类别的代表性范例;

  • 想要区分概念时;

  • 想要利用某个情况来强调某个特点时。

建议使用的介绍性句型

以下是根据功能的不同,Wordvice通过长时间的论文润色润色经验为大家总结了一些句型,虽然这个列表并不详尽,但至少能提供几个可以使用的短语类型。

目的介绍性句型范文
stating information that is not “common knowledge”
  • [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]

  • As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered

  • According to [Author],

  • As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .

  • According to Marks and Peters . . .

drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data
  • suggests

  • as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by

  • based on

  • can be seen/ observed when

  • as seen in

  • which is made apparent when

  • is demonstrated by/ through/ when

  • hinges on

  • The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .

  • As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .

  • Based on self-reported survey results . . .

  • This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .

  • As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .

  • The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .

  • The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .

  • This conclusion hinges on . . .

clarifying a prior statement
  • for example

  • for instance

  • by way of illustration

  • as an example

  • to clarify

  • to explain further

  • namely

  • to be specific

  • that is,

  • in other words,

  • This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .

  • It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .

  • By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .

  • As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .

  • To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .

  • To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .

  • Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.

  • To be specific, bull markets can . . .

  • That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .

  • In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .

identifying representative examples of a category
  • for example/ instance

  • such as*

  • e.g.

  • one/ another example

  • like*

  • excluding

  • including

  • an example being

*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.

  • Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.

  • The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.

  • The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).

  • One/ another example of this exception is . . .

  • I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.

  • All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.

  • All stars, including our sun, . . .

  • Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .

distinguishing concepts
  • in a similar case

  • unlike the case of

  • in the same way

  • as a case in point

  • in a typical situation

  • in a normal scenario

  • In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .

  • Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.

  • Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.

  • As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .

  • In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .

  • In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .

emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation
  • for example

  • indeed

  • in fact

  • notably

  • markedly

  • as a case in point

  • Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .

  • Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .

  • Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .

  • High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .

  • Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .

  • As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .


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