# 德国和法国的一流大学在哪里

-这是两个自己的旧帖-

PLUS: 这些年来德国推出的卓越大学计划受到了许多反对，认为卓越大学计划违背了德国大学为民众提供公平教育机会的传统。而且结果只是提供了更多的行政职位，并未增加大学的产出。我与一位德国朋友聊天是他也认为，德国传统的体系已经证明可以培养杰出的科学家和工程师，没有必要改变。

école Normale Supérieure (巴黎高等师范) école Polytechnique (巴黎综合理工)

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August 28, 2014德国大学排名的启示

<http://kysj.amegroups.com/articles/1868>

August 28, 2014

<http://kysj.amegroups.com/articles/1871>

Mathematic in France

-  Teaching advanced mathematical concept early in school.Students are introduced to the vector calculus in the second year of "College", when they are 12, pretty much at the same time as percentages and simplest systems of equations. This part is mandatory for everyone, and there is no way to avoid it, even for those who will be attending vocational high schools. Until recently, the bases of Matrix theory, combinatorics and group theory (!) were also taught starting from 14 years of age.

(- 在学校早期教授高级数学概念。当学生12岁时即教育向量微积分，几乎与百分比和最简单的方程组同时教学。这部分是每个人都必须学习的，没有办法避免，即使是那些将参加职业学校的人。矩阵理论(matrix theory),组合(combinatorics) 和群理(group theory )的基础也从14岁年开始教育)
-  All natural sciences are taught through mathematics.
In most countries in the world, the understanding of other natural sciences come from the intuition first, then some simple equations are written to formalize it. In France, it is completely different: first you write a pretty complex system of (differential) equations that fully describes all the variables of your system, then you spend a couple of hours solving it and finally get what you was initially interested in.

(- 所有自然科学通过数学进行教育。在世界上大多数国家，对其他自然科学的理解首先来自直觉，然后写一些简单的方程来化界它们。但在法国完全不同的：首先编写一个非常复杂的系统(微分)方程，描述系统的所有变量，然后花了几个小时解它，最终得到最初感兴趣的内容)
-  Preparatory Classes and Grandes Ecoles system. In France, most prestigious business and engineeringschools recruit based on a competitive exam that takes place after two years of "Preparatory Classes", roughly equivalent to the first three years ofuniversity. Since it is a competition and not an exam, a minimal passing grade doesn't mean success but failure. You have to get the best grade among all. Most Prestigious "Grandes Ecoles", such as ENS would even include currently opened problems in fields of mathematics and theoretical physics inorder to see how students react to problems that have no known solution, and just in case one of them comes up with an idea how to solve one.

(Preparatory Classes and Grandes Ecoles system .在法国，最负盛名的商业和工程学院基于在两年的预备课程之后进行的竞争性考试招生，预备课程大致相当于大学的前三年。由于它是一个竞争，而不是考试，仅仅通过分数线并不意味着成功，而是意味着失败。学生必须得到报名考生中的最好成绩。最着名的“Grandes Ecoles”，如巴黎高师的考试题目甚至包括目前在数学和理论物理学领域尚未有答案的问题，以看看学生如何对没有已知解决方案的问题做出反应，另外是也许如果其中一个人能想出一个解决方案。)

- Tradition of mathematics and encouragement of acritical approach.  A large part of 19th century mathematics underlying most of our modern technologies today were coined by French mathematicians just as some of more recent foundation concepts in mathematics. Knowing them personally as students or colleagues before they achieved their fame led mathematics professors of most of French higher education institutions to consider that any of their students could become the next mathematician of century and thus to be extremely precise and detailed in their teaching and to encourage a critical approach of existing theories.

(- 数学的传统和鼓励分析推理方法。正如新近一些数学概念一样，今天我们大部分现代技术所基于的19世纪数学的大部分是由法国数学家创造的。大多数法国高等教育机构的数学教授认为他们的任何学生都可以成为下一个世纪的伟大数学家，因此在教学中极为精确和详细，并鼓励学生对于已有的理论已经严格的分析。)

https://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-2649160-1021784.html

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