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玉米研究方向

已有 3483 次阅读 2013-12-11 10:24 |系统分类:科研笔记

DA1 SMO2 基因在玉米生长发育中的功能

   DA1是控制种子器官大小的负调控因子,而且受ABA的诱导表达,其突变体的种子变大。SMO2 控制器官大小的正调控因子,突变体地上部变小,根系变短。这两个基因的发现和功能分析都是在拟南芥中进行的。目前,有关这两个基因功能的研究在单子叶植物中还未见报道。玉米作为我国最重要的粮食作物之一和典型的C4类模式植物,在农业生产和单子叶植物功能基因组学研究中具有重要地位。随着水土资源的日益紧张和粮食需求的日益增加,粮食安全问题日益突突。如何提高农作物的产量,是我国迫切需要解决的重大问题。从作物自身的遗传入手,解析影响产量形成的遗传因子及其作用分子机理,是进行农作物产量遗传改良的重要基础。本文拟从影响器官大小的基因DA1SMO2入手,来研究这两个基因对玉米生长发育和产量的影响,为玉米产量的遗传改良提供候选目的基因。目前,我们已经通过生物信息学的方法解析得到玉米的这两个基因序列,为下一步基因克隆和研究它们的功能奠定了基础。

 

参考文献

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玉米脱水素基因在逆境应答中的功能研究

     植物脱水素基因在逆境应答过程中具有重要功能。作者通过生物信息学解析得到一个新的玉米脱水素基因序列,位于4号染色体的BAC克隆AC203943.3中。序列分析表明,它与小麦的COR410同源,在基因上有调控序列中存在ABAAUXIN、茉莉酸甲酯的应答元件,以及冷胁迫和干旱胁迫应答元件。本课题拟通过表达谱分析、等位变异分析和转基因研究,探讨这个脱水素基因在玉米逆境应答中的功能,为玉米的抗逆分子育种提供分子标记和候选目的基因。

 

参考文献

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Danyluk , J et al.(1998).Accumulation of an Acidic Dehydrin in the Vicinity of the Plasma Membrane during Cold Acclimation of Wheat. The Plant Cell, 10, 623–638.

Rorat, T. (2006). Plant dehydrins- tissue location , structure and function.Cellular. and  Molecular Biology Letters, 11, 536 – 556.

 

 三个玉米SnRK2新基因的功能研究

  植物SnRK2基因在ABA信号转导、干旱渗透胁迫、矿质营养吸收及生长发育过程中具有重要功能。作者通过生物信息学分析,发现了三个新的玉米SnRK2基因, 与王国英课题组报道的不同。这三个新基因分别与拟南芥的SnRK2.2SnRK2.4SnRK2.6/OST1同源。本课题拟通过基因表达调控研究(不同逆境下的表达谱分析、亚细胞定位、启动子分析)和转基因研究,探讨这三个玉米新基因在生长发育、逆境应答中的功能,为玉米的抗逆分子育种提供候选目的基因。

参考文献

李利斌,刘开昌,李现刚,三个新的玉米SnRK2基因的鉴定和特征分析。山东农业科学,2009127-11

Fujita Y, Nakashima K, Yoshida T et al. Three SnRK2 protein kinases are the main positive regulators of abscisic acid signaling in response to water stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009, 50(12):2123-32.

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Nakashima K, Fujita Y, Kanamori N et al. Three Arabidopsis SnRK2 protein kinases, SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6/OST1 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3, involved in ABA signaling are essential for the control of seed development and dormancy. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009,50(7):1345-63.

Hirayama T, Umezawa T. The PP2C-SnRK2 complex: the central regulator of an abscisic acid signaling pathway. Plant Signal Behav. 2010, 5(2):160-3.

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Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto S, Minami H et al. (2004). Differential activation of rice sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 family by hyperosmotic stress and abscisic acid. Plant Cell 16:1163-1177.

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Zou H, Zhang X, Zhao J R et al. 2006. Cloning and characterization of maize ZmSPK1, a homologue to nonfermenting1-related protein kinase2. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 490-496.

 

玉米SOS2/CIPK24CIPK3的功能

植物的CIPK/SnRK3基因在植物逆境应答(干旱、低温、盐碱、淹水)、矿质营养吸收、生长发育及钙信号传导过程中具有重要功能。我们通过生物学信息学分析,发现了两个玉米的CIPK基因,分别与拟南芥和水稻的SOS2/CIPK24CIPK3同源,与最近陈析丰等(Chen et al., 2011)报道的不同。本课题拟研究这两个基因在逆境应答(盐胁迫、低温胁迫)中的功能及对玉米生长发育的影响。

参考文献:

Chen X, Gu Z, Xin D, Hao L, Liu C, Huang J, Ma B, Zhang H. Identification and characterization of putative CIPK genes in maize. J Genet Genomics. 2011, 38(2):77-87.

Coello P, Hey SJ, and Halford NG. The sucrose non-fermenting-1-related (SnRK) family of protein kinases: potential for manipulation to improve stress tolerance and increase yield. J. Exp. Bot., 2011; 62(3): 883- 893.

Kim, K.N., Cheong, Y.H., Grant, J.J. et al. (2003). CIPK3, a Calcium sensor–associated protein kinase that regulates abscisic acid and cold signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 15:411–423

Liu, J., Ishitani, M., Halfter, U. et al. (2000). The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3730–3734

Luan S, Lan W, Chul Lee S. Potassium nutrition, sodium toxicity, and calcium signaling: connections through the CBL-CIPK network. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009,12(3): 339-46.

Pandey, G.K., Granta, J.J., Cheonga, Y.H. et al. (2008). Calcineurin-B like Protein CBL9 interacts with target kinase CIPK3 in the regulation of ABA response in seed germination. Molecular Plant 1:238–248

Pandey, G.K. (2008). Emergence of a novel calcium signaling pathway in plants: CBL-CIPK signaling network. Physiol Mol Bio Plants 14: 51–68

Xiang, Y., Huang, Y., Xiong, L. (2007). Characterization of stress-responsive CIPK genes in rice for stress tolerance improvement. Plant Physiol 144:1416–1428

 



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