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看书看来的趣事(四)
2021-10-2 17:37
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求真认真地引用了俺的看书看来的趣事(三),以此表示“出于对真理负责,也出于对科技进步的考虑,隐讳不是好主意。”于是接二连三地将他自己的工作“公之于众”,并且表示像谢教授那样,例如“霍曼转移”,做什么有外国人名字的研究,已经代表不了时下中国人的原创了。好吧,俺认可求真的务实,投之以桃报之以李,下面的链接就是求真关于“对电力负荷预测的一些看法”  http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1306311.html

回到“看书看来的趣事”。

前面的趣事说起了杨振宁先生的“非阿贝尔规范理论”的前世。1988年瑞典人将第一届Oscar Klein奖章授予了杨振宁先生,杨振宁做了Klein纪念演讲。

Oscar Klein 那篇被遗忘的文章“On the theory of charged fields” 以法语分别发表在1938和1939年波兰和法国的会议上,1986年被翻译为英语:

"Sur la theorie des champs associes a des particules chargees," Les Nouvelles Theories de la Physique, Collection Scientific, Institute International de Cooperation Intellectuel, Paris A939), p. 81. Proceedings of Symposium in Warsaw, 30 May-3 June, 1938.

我们这里转载第一届Oscar Klein讲座里提到这个工作的相关内容

1 来自瑞典语的英文翻译,作者 Inga Fischer-Hjalmars and Bertel Laurent,Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

“Gauge Theory

A less well-known work, carried out by Oskar Klein in 1939, points far ahead in time. The essential idea in this work was repeated by C. N. Yang and R. L. Mills in 1954, obviously without any knowledge of Oskar Klein's achievements fifteen years earlier. The work of Yang and Mills has later become the model of methods that are at present mainly employed for theoretical approaches to elementary particles as well as gravitation. Presumably, there are several reasons why so little attention has been paid to the above-mentioned work by Oskar Klein: It is included in a publication that is difficult to obtain (and written in French) and it appeared perhaps too early. Typically, it was inspired by the five-dimensional theory; a theory with which most elementary particle physicists were not very well acquainted at that time.”

中文翻译 DeepL

“规范理论

奥斯卡-克莱因在1939年进行的一项不太知名的工作,在时间上遥遥领先。1954年,C.N.杨和R.L.米尔斯重复了这项工作的基本思想,显然他们对奥斯卡-克莱因15年前的成就一无所知。杨和米尔斯的工作后来成为目前主要用于基本粒子和引力的理论方法的模型。据推测,有几个原因使人们对奥斯卡-克莱因的上述工作很少关注。它被收录在一本很难获得的出版物中(而且是用法语写的),而且它出现得也许太早了。最典型的是,它受到五维理论的启发;当时大多数基本粒子物理学家对这一理论还不是很熟悉。”

2 杨振宁在讲座中的呼应

“I have mentioned above the paper 13 by O Klein which was his report at a 1938 conference in Warsaw. It is appropriate at this Oskar Klein Memorial Lecture to pay tribute to this very remarkable paper which presented a theory of fields satisfying equations that contain nonnonlinear terms very similar to those of Eq. A) above. How did Klein arrive at these terms? The answer is: he had started from the Kaluza-Klein theory which, being based on general relativity, had nonlinear terms.

Unfortunately, as already mentioned in remark A), general relativity (i.e. tangent bundle) does not easily lend itself to generalizations to other gauge fields. Thus Klein did not discover non-Abelian gauge symmetry and his remarkable paper did not produce strong impact.”

“我在上面提到了O. Klein的论文,这是他在1938年华沙会议上的报告。在这次奥斯卡-克莱因纪念讲座上,向这篇非常了不起的论文表示敬意是合适的,它提出了一个满足方程的场理论,其中包含与上述公式 A)非常相似的非线性项。克莱因是如何得出这些项的?答案是:他从Kaluza-Klein理论开始,该理论基于广义相对论,有非线性项。

不幸的是,正如在评论 A)中已经提到的,广义相对论(即切丛)不容易被推广到其他规范场。因此,克莱因并没有发现非阿贝尔规范对称性,他的杰出论文也没有产生强烈的影响。”

未知前人工作,独立发展出新的工作,这事并不稀奇。稀奇的是在知道以后,恢复世间原貌的努力。 

注:从季理真等人刚刚出版的新书《杨振宁访谈录》知道了杨振宁与Oscar Klein讲座的渊源,书中包括8个访谈,其中第一个访谈(涉及这个渊源的)也出现在高教出版社为贺杨振宁95岁生日的纪念书中。

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