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英译本《中国上古审美文化对日本绳文时代的影响》(三)

已有 2471 次阅读 2014-8-31 06:57 |系统分类:论文交流| 中国, 日本, 上古, 英译本, 审美文化

英译本《中国上古审美文化对日本绳文时代的影响》(三)

 

Influenceof Ancient Chinese Aesthetic Cultures on

JapaneseJomon Aesthetic Culture  

ZhiguangKong

(School of Literatureand Journalism, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100)

 

Abstract

Based on the Chinese and Japanesearchaeological cultural relics, ancient documents and the legends of theancient history, it can be concluded that the ancient Chinese aestheticcultures had great influences on the Japanese Jomon aesthetic culture. Suchinfluences can be divided into three stages: early, middle and late. Theinfluence in the early stage was represented by the radiation of the Chineseaesthetic culture in the Taihao Era, typically the Houli Culture in Shandong, to theJapanese aesthetic culture in the Incipient and Initial Jomon Periods. Theinfluence in the middle stage was represented by the penetration of the Chineseaesthetic culture in the Shaohao Era, typically the Dawenkou Culture, into theJapanese aesthetic culture in the Early and Middle Jomon Periods. The influencein the late stage was represented by the condensation of the Chinese aestheticcultures in the Period of the Shang-Zhou Dynasties, mainly the Bronze Cultureand the Jade Sculpture Culture, in the Japanese aesthetic culture in the Lateand Final Jomon Periods. Due to the influences from the ancient Chineseaesthetic cultures, the Japanese Jomon aesthetic culture changed accordinglyboth in the deep-level cultural concepts, such as sun worship, fire worship,phoenix worship and cock worship, and in the aesthetic forms, such as theoverall shape, pottery ornamentation, abstract cord pattern, etc.. That is whythe style of the Jomon aesthetic culture was firstly mysterious, primitive andunskillful, then miraculous and gorgeous, and finally dignified and elegant.

 

Keywords: Jomon Culture, TaihaoCulture, Shaohao Culture, Shang-Zhou Culture, Aesthetic Culture Exchange

 

 

 

 

III

The period between 4,000 and 2,300years ago was the late stage of influence from the primitive Chinese aestheticculture to the Jomon aesthetic culture. This period corresponded to the BronzePeriod, or the Period of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the ZhouDynasty along with the the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Period ofthe Warring States. It also corresponded to the Late and Final Jomon Periods inJapan.

 

The Late and Final Jomon Periodswitnessed unprecedented changes in cultural concepts with the evolution ofeconomic production and social life. The potteries of this period inherited anddeveloped the Jomon traditions in respect of shape and decorative patterns. Theinheritance referred to the basic decorative patterns shared by the potteriesin both the Early and Middle Jomon Periods and the Late and Final JomonPeriods, such as the fire pattern, bird pattern, snake pattern, and spiralpattern, despite the more concise, simple and abstract style stressing designs,which replaced the over-elaborate and gorgeous style with three-dimensionalshapes and decorations in the Early and Middle Jomon Periods. The fire pattern,bird pattern, snake pattern or spiral pattern were mainly decorated at themouth rims or the handles. Although they were not placed at very dominantpositions, it was obvious that the decorative patterns of the same typesbetween the Early and Middle Jomon Periods and the Late and Final Jomon Periodswere similar. The evolution referred to the big difference in potteries betweenthe Early and Middle Jomon Periods and the Late and Final Jomon Periods. Thepotteries in the previous periods were mysterious, fantastic, grand, splendidand over-elaborate, while the potteries in the Late and Final Jomon Periodswere simple, standardized, elegant and refined. This change trend was mainlyrevealed in two aspects. The first was the enhanced daily utility, representedby the increasing number of potteries for daily use, such as pot, Dou, dish andcenser. The second trend was the improved practical utility, reflected by thecommonly seen potteries with the shape of pigs, birds, shells, etc., instead ofthe commonly seen decorations in the Early and Middle Jomon Period, such asdivine beasts decorated at the mouth rim or shoulder, handles with the shape ofanimal heads and the piled-up appliques with the shape of totem animals at themiddle part. The aesthetic culture changes in the Late and Final Jomon Periodscould be found nearly throughout the JapaneseArchipelago, typically represented by the potteries with fine andsplendid as well as dignified and elegant designs unearthed from Kamegaoka sitein Aomori prefecturein the Final Jomon Period.

 

It was attributable to both theinternal and external causes that the aesthetic culture of the Late and FinalJomon Periods differed dramatically from those of the Early and Middle JomonPeriods with significant changes in shape, ornaments and pottery surfacedecoration. Internally, the reforms in the social patterns in the Japanese Archipelago accounted for the changes in aestheticculture. In general, the Early and Middle Jomon Periods belonged to thematriarchal society despite the signs of transition into the patriarchalsociety. Due to the limitation of productivity level in the matriarchalsociety, the Early and Middle Jomon inhabitants stressed the kinship,membership of the clan as well as the worship of and reliance on the totemgods, nature gods and progenitor gods. Therefore, in the pottery assemblageculture dominated by the tube kettles, it was extremely important to offersacrifices to and piously worship the totem gods, nature gods and progenitorgods. In the Late and Final Jomon Periods, the Japanese Archipelago enteredinto the patriarchal society despite some traces of the matriarchal society insome aspects. As the social productivity had been remarkably improved, the gapbetween the rich and the poor appeared, and the wars between the tribes wereinevitable. The gods with “helmet and armor” unearthed were the evidences forsuch situations. With the entrance to the patriarchal society, the Tribe Chiefovershadowed the nature gods and totem gods. The male progenitor gods becameincreasingly eminent. So it was not difficult to understand why the potterieswith male progenitor gods increased and displaced the tube pottery assemblagefeatured by mysterious and powerful style with gorgeous decorations.

 

Externally the change wasmainly due to the influences from China since the Shang Dynasty andthe Zhou Dynasty. Over 4,000 years ago, the establishment of the Xia Dynastymarked China’sentry into the Age of Civilization of the Dynasties. At the end of the ShangDynasty and the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty, historic changes took place in China. ZhouWuwang overthrew the Emperor Zhou of the Shang Dynasty, and the remaining armymen of the Shang Dynasty were led by the prince Ji Zi to migrate to the Korean Peninsulaand establish “Choson”. Probably some people sailed across the sea to theJapanese Archipelago. This could be evidenced with the Stone Sickles for theJomon production basically the same as the stone sickles in Shandong Peninsula.In daily life, the pottery Li vessels were similar to the potteries from theancient pottery culture in the age of Three Dynasties. The decorative patternson the potteries in the Late and Final Jomon Periods were similar to thedesigns of curling dragon, cloud and thunder, rolling grass, etc. on thebronzes of the Shang-Zhou Dynasties. The overall animal-shaped potteries andsurface decorations were similar to those of Xizun, a bronze animal of theShang-Zhou Dynasties.  From the West Zhou to the East Zhou, there existedseveral ancient cultural exchanges. Sosakon stated in Aesthetic Japan-Genealogy of the Jomon, that around2,750-2,200 years ago, corresponding the Zhou Dynasty to the Warring StatesPeriod, some Chinese again sailed across the sea to Japan.(8) They took the advanced culture of the Age of Civilizationof the Dynasties to the Japanese Archipelago, where it was the patriarchalsociety. This time the Chinese pushed the aesthetic culture of the Late andFinal Jomon Periods to a new prosperity.

 

In a word, the ancientcultural exchange between Chinaand Japanhas a long history. Instead of being an isolated and closed culture system, theoverall Jomon aesthetic culture was a relatively independent culture system aswell as a dynamic development culture system constantly influenced by theoutside cultures and arts, especially by the ancient Chinese cultures. Duringthe historic development of the Jomon Culture, the aesthetic culture in theIncipient and Initial Jomon Periods, the Early and Middle Jomon Periods, as wellas the Late and Final Jomon Period were respectively influenced by theaesthetic cultures of the Taihao Era, the Shaohao Era, and the Zhou-ShangDynasties in China.Due to the acceptance, absorbance and development of the aesthetic factors ofthe ancient Chinese cultures, the Jomon Culture had made splendid achievementsduring the relatively independent development.

 

 

Bibliography

1.  People’s DailyOverseas Edition, Aug. 14, 2001.

2.  Fengshi Luan,“Archaeology Studies on Dongyi”, Shandong University PublishingHouse, Edition 1, May 1996, pp. 55

3.  Fengshi Luan,“Archaeological Research on Haidai Area”, Shandong UniversityPublishing House, Edition 1, June 1, 1997, pp. 22-23

4.  Guangming Daily,Jan. 17, 1998

5.  Collection ofResearch Papers on Dawenkou Culture, compiled by the Department of Archaeologyand Archive Science, School of History and Literature, Shandong University,Edition 1, Nov. 1979

6,8Sosakon, “Aesthetic Japan-Genealogy of the Jomon”, SHINCHOSHA CO., April1991

7.  Takayasu Higuchi (Author), Fengshu Cai(Translator),  “The Origin of the Japanese”, Shandong UniversityPublishing House, Edition 1, Feb. 1996.

 

 (本文曾在由中华全国美学学会、中国社会科学院、北京第二外国语学院举办的国际美学大会上宣读,并载《文史哲》2002年第4期)

                                       




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