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蜱虫叮咬绝对不能用烫的办法

已有 5516 次阅读 2011-6-21 19:30 |系统分类:观点评述| 专家, 误导, 蜱虫, 拔出


科学网网友:蜱虫在我们新疆是不是俗称的草瘪子,我们井上的工人偶尔可以碰到,他们的办法是拿烟头烫他的屁股,蜱虫一痛就自己退出来了?请问这个办法是否有效?
 

刚刚对照了蜱虫防治手册翻译版和原文Tick management handbook.

蜱虫叮咬绝对不能用烫的办法

因为一般情况下拔出是最好的,而通过外界的热或者化学刺激,蜱虫剧烈挣扎过程中,必然要加大感染风险。

如下:
蜱的去除
要除去一个蜱,使用尖头镊子或钳子尽可能接近皮肤表面夹住它。然后用平稳的力将蜱
笔直地拔出来。应该将蜱虫连带完整的口器一同除去。商业化的除蜱装置已被证明在除去黑
腿蜱幼虫的有效性上差异很大:有些在每次尝试中都成功了,有些在每次试验中都失败,有
些处于这两者之间。最近的研究表明,包括四种的移除蜱虫设备,在移除附着48 小时的肩
突硬蜱的尝试中都获得成功,它们是 Original Tick Kit (Tick Kit, Inc.), Pick-Tick (Encepur,
Chiron), Pro-Tick Remedy (SCS, Ltd.), and the Nick Nipper (Josyln Designs, Inc.).[注:品牌
(生产商)]
蜱的幼虫和若虫的口器将很少能残留在皮肤里。采用适当的去除方法,他们通常会完好
无损地出来。成蜱由于有更长的口器而更难完整地去除。如果口器被折断,就不会再改变得
莱姆病的机会。蜱虫口器或分泌粘合剂形成的塞中存在螺旋体,因此如果有吸食伤口,则意
味着蜱的去除为时已晚并且传播已经发生。不要使用其他方法来去除蜱[如:用凡士林来使
蜱窒息,用火柴的热或汽油或其他化学品来使蜱退出来];它们是没有效的,且有可能增加
病原体传播的风险。

原文:
Tick Removal
To remove a tick, use thin-tipped tweezers or forceps to grasp the tick as close to the skin surface as possible. Pull the tick straight upward with steady even pressure. This should remove the tick with the mouthparts intact. Commercial tick removal devices have been shown to vary widely in their ef. cacy for removing nymphal blacklegged ticks: some worked in every attempt, some failed in every attempt, some were in between. Tick removal devices that have been shown to successfully remove I. scapularis nymphs attached for 48 hours in all attempts in a recent study include #4 forceps, Original Tick Kit (Tick Kit, Inc.), Pick-Tick (Encepur, Chiron), Pro-Tick Remedy (SCS, Ltd.), and the Nick Nipper (Josyln Designs, Inc.).

The mouthparts of larval and nymphal ticks will seldom be left in the skin. With proper removal, they usually come out intact. Adult ticks are more dif.cult to remove intact because of the longer mouthparts. If the mouthparts break off, it will not change the chance of getting Lyme disease. Spirochetes in the mouthparts or cement plug, and therefore the feeding lesion, means the tick was removed too late and transmission has already occurred. Do not use other methods of tick removal  (e.g. petroleum jelly to suffocate the tick, heat from matches to make the tick back out or gasoline or other chemicals); they are not effective and may potentially increase the risk of pathogen transmission.


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