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Kudos Project:宇宙的膨胀能解释地球板块构造吗?

已有 758 次阅读 2021-10-9 10:05 |系统分类:论文交流

Does the expansion of the universe explain plate tectonics?

宇宙的膨胀能解释地球板块构造吗?

Project DOI: 10.26303/1dy4-3n06

 

Kudos project 的链接:https://www.growkudos.com/projects/does-the-expansion-of-the-universe-explain-plate-tectonics

 

What is it about?

这个科研项目是关于什么的?

 

Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that attributes geological phenomena to the movement of several large rigid plates that make up the earth's crust. The wide acceptance of the theory in the 1960s was the culmination of decades of geological data-gathering. And it was hailed a revolution in our understanding of the planet.

板块构造理论是一种把地质现象归因于构成地壳的几个大型刚性板块的运动的科学理论。20世纪60年代人们对这一理论的广泛接受是几十年地质数据收集的顶峰。它被誉为我们对地球认识的一次革命。

But according to Jian’an Wang, former professor of physics at Shenzhen University in China, it doesn’t explain everything. Namely, it doesn’t identify the energy source that powers tectonic movement in the first place. 

但深圳大学前物理学教授王建安表示,这并不能解释一切。也就是说,它首先并没有确定板块运动的能量来源。


In a recent article, Wang offers one “far out” explanation: the expansion of the universe. 

在最近的一篇文章中,王提出了一个“极具想象力”的解释:宇宙的膨胀。

The article follows up on Wang’s previous work in which he reframes Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity to allow for the existence of an “ether”—an all-energy background against which all physical phenomena in the universe play out. 

这篇文章延续了王之前的工作,在他的工作中,他重塑了爱因斯坦的狭义相对论,以允许“以太”的存在——宇宙中所有的物理现象都在此背景下发生。

The expansion of the universe is slowing down because of the gravitational pull between all the objects in the universe. This decelerating cosmic expansion causes the electrons and nuclei that make up atoms or ions to drift farther apart. This leads to increasingly large atoms that occupy more volume and therefore become less dense over time. 

由于宇宙中所有天体之间的万有引力的作用,宇宙膨胀正在减速。这种减速的宇宙膨胀会使得构成原子或离子的电子相对原子核漂移得更远,即导致宇宙中所有的原子及离子持续变大。

 

Because the surface area of a sphere with a solid surface is proportional to the square of the radius of the atoms that make up the sphere, and the volume of a sphere is proportional to the cube of the radius of the atoms that make up the sphere, so, with the expansion of atoms and ions, the volume of the earth increases at a faster rate than the surface area, the hydraulic pressure inside the earth is increasing, that is, the energy that drives the various tectonic movements of the earth is constantly accumulating.

由于球体的固体表面积正比于构成球面的原子的半径的平方,而球体的体积正比于构成球体的原子的半径的立方,所以,随着原子及离子的膨胀,地球的体积比表面积以更快的速度增大,地球内部的液压在不断增加,即推动地球各种构造运动的能量在不断蓄积。


It is this release of energy that drives the splitting and spreading of the ocean floor, the drift of continents, and causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Wang says. In short, cosmic expansion drives plate tectonics—not just here on earth, but on all planets across the universe. 

王说,正是这种能量的释放驱动了海底的分裂和扩张、大陆的漂移、以及导致地震和火山爆发的产生。简而言之,宇宙膨胀驱动着板块构造——不仅在地球上,而且在宇宙中所有的行星上。

As evidence, Wang points to the decreasing density of matter on earth. More recent volcanic eruptions, for example, have tended to produce less dense volcanic rock. And diamonds, one of the densest forms of carbon, formed easily in the earth's crust billions of years ago.

作为证据,王指出地球上物质的密度正在下降。例如,最近的火山爆发往往会产生密度较小的火山岩。而钻石是碳密度最大的一种形式,数十亿年前在地壳中很容易形成。

Jian’an Wang received his bachelor’s degree in experimental nuclear physics in 1982 from the Department of Modern Physics at the University of Science and Technology of China. Upon graduating, he was assigned to the China Institute of Atomic Energy, where he studied nuclear reactions of charged particles. In 1985, he was admitted to the Department of Physics at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, from which he received a master’s degree. He obtained a Ph.D. in 1996 from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, for his research on laser luminescent materials. Wang entered the Department of Physics at Shenzhen University as an assistant professor in 1999 and retired in 2012. 

王建安1982年毕业于中国科学技术大学近代物理系实验核物理专业,获学士学位。毕业后,他被分配到中国原子能研究院从事带电粒子核反应研究工作。1985年考入华中科技大学物理系读研,并在那获得硕士学位。1996年,他在位于加拿大魁北克省蒙特利尔市的麦吉尔大学获得博士学位,博士论文是关于激光发光材料方面的研究。1999年进入深圳大学物理系担任副教授,并于2012年提前退休。

 

Why is it important?

为什么这一科研项目很重要?

 

Tracing the origins of tectonic movement on earth could give us a more complete understanding of how our planet has evolved over billions of years, and clue us into what the earth’s future holds. Wang suggests that gaining a clearer picture of how cosmic expansion powers seismic activity could lead to ways of predicting and perhaps even preventing life-threatening events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

追踪地球上构造运动的起源可以让我们更全面地了解我们的星球在数十亿年里是如何进化的,并为我们了解地球的未来提供线索。王认为,更清楚地了解宇宙膨胀是如何导致地震活动的,将有助于预报甚至预防地震和火山爆发等危及生命的事件。

 

Audience Briefings

观众简报

Press新闻

 

How cosmic expansion might power plate tectonics

宇宙膨胀如何为板块构造提供动力

 

September 16, 2021 – China – In the 1960s, the world was enveloped by revolution. The field of geoscience was no exception. It was then that the vast majority of geologists the world over had accepted the theory of plate tectonics—a model that describes the earth’s surface as a collection of 12 rigid plates gliding over a fluid-like shell. Despite decades of pushback, by the late 60s, all data pointed to a tectonic earth, offering explanations for the gradual drift of the continents, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the formation of new land in the oceans, and many other geological phenomena.

2021916——中国——20世纪60年代,世界被革命包围。地球科学领域也不例外。正是在那时,世界上绝大多数的地质学家接受了板块构造理论——这个模型将地球表面描述为由12个坚硬的板块组成的集合,它们在一个像流体一样的外壳上滑动。尽管经历了几十年的阻力,到60年代末,所有的数据都指向了构造地球,为大陆的逐渐漂移、地震、火山爆发、海洋中新陆地的形成以及许多其他地质现象提供了解释。

 

More than half a century later, the revolution isn’t over yet. That’s according to Jian’an Wang, a former professor of physics at Shenzhen University.

半个多世纪过去了,革命还没有结束。这是前深圳大学物理学教授王建安的说法。

 

While plate tectonics describes the forces that push the earth's crust, it does not specify the source of energy that makes those forces do work, Wang said. Paradoxically, to do this, one has to think bigger than the earth. According to Wang, that energy can ultimately be traced to the expansion of the universe.

王说,虽然板块构造学描述了推动地壳运动的力,但它并没有明确指出让这些力做功的能量来源。自相矛盾的是,要做到这一点,人们必须考虑比地球更大的问题。王认为,这种能量最终可以追溯到宇宙的膨胀。

 

In a previous study, Wang offered a reframing of Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity that admits the existence of an all-energy “ether”. This ether is the backdrop for all physical phenomena perceivable in our universe. A mathematical consequence of that is that atoms tend to grow (i.e., occupy more volume and become less dense) as the expansion of the universe slows—which some data suggest is our current state of cosmic affairs.

在之前的一项研究中,王提出了阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦狭义相对论的重构,承认全能量以太的存在。以太是我们宇宙中所有可感知的物理现象的背景。由此得出的一个数学结论是,随着宇宙膨胀速度的减慢,原子趋向于增长(即占据更大的体积,密度变得更小)——一些数据表明,这就是我们目前的宇宙状态。

 

Because the surface area of a sphere with a solid surface is proportional to the square of the radius of the atoms that make up the sphere, and the volume of a sphere is proportional to the cube of the radius of the atoms that make up the sphere, so, with the expansion of atoms and ions, the volume of the earth increases at a faster rate than the surface area, the hydraulic pressure inside the earth is increasing, that is, the energy that drives the various tectonic movements of the earth is constantly accumulating. This energy is released when gathered to some extent.

由于球体的固体表面积正比于构成球面的原子的半径的平方,而球体的体积正比于构成球体的原子的半径的立方,所以,随着原子及离子的膨胀,地球的体积比表面积以更快的速度增大,地球内部的液压在不断增加,即推动地球各种构造运动的能量在不断蓄积。这种能量聚集到一定程度就会释放出来。

As the atoms and ions that make up magma become larger, the magma expands, releases gas, and becomes overall more volatile. That build-up and release of energy, Wang explains, is what powers the formation and alteration of landforms, the spreading of the seafloor, continental drift, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. So it’s the expansion of the universe that causes tectonic movement on earth (and all planets in the universe, for that matter).

当组成岩浆的原子和离子变得更大时,岩浆就会膨胀,释放气体,整体上变得更不稳定。王解释说,这种能量的积聚和释放,是地貌的形成和变化、海底扩张、大陆漂移、地震和火山爆发的动力。所以,正是宇宙的膨胀导致了地球(以及宇宙中所有行星)的构造运动。

 

As physical proof, Wang offers several examples of how matter has become less dense over time. Billions of years ago, natural diamonds formed in shallow layers of the earth's crust under normal geological pressure; meteorites tend to carry denser ancient minerals than those found on earth; and more recent volcanic eruptions have produced less dense volcanic rock.

作为物理证据,王提供了几个例子来说明物质密度是如何随着时间的推移而降低的。在数十亿年前天然钻石在地壳浅层一般的地质压力下形成; 陨石往往携带有比地球上发现的密度更大的古老矿物质;而时间越近的火山爆发产生的火山岩石密度越低。

 

Harnessing this information, Wang says, could prove powerful. Subterranean heat leaks and gas pressure changes that precede earthquakes could be tied to measurable changes in ground temperature, humidity, electromagnetic field, and air composition. Understanding these complex relationships could help experts predict earthquakes and, perhaps one day, even learn how to prevent them.

王说,利用这些信息可能会很有效。地震前的地下热泄漏和气体压力变化可能与地面温度、湿度、电磁场和空气成分的可测量的变化有关。了解这些复杂的关系可以帮助专家预测地震,也许有一天,甚至可以学会如何预防地震。

 

Who is involved?

涉及哪些人? 

Vivien Pinner and Dr. Jian’an wang 

Vivien Pinner 和王建安博士

下面是Kudos project 的链接:https://www.growkudos.com/projects/does-the-expansion-of-the-universe-explain-plate-tectonics

 




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