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据科学公共图书馆（Public Library of Science）2021年11月16日提供的消息，中美科学家联合研究发现喝咖啡和茶可能与降低中风（stroke）和痴呆（dementia）的发病率有关（Coffee and tea drinking may be associated with reduced rates of stroke and dementia）。相关研究结果于2021年11月16日已经在《科学公共图书馆医学》（PLoS Medicine）杂志网站发表——Yuan Zhang, Hongxi Yang, Shu Li, Wei-dong Li, Yaogang Wang. Consumption of coffee and tea and risk of developing stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia: A cohort study in the UK Biobank. PLoS Medicine, 2021, 18(11): e1003830. Published: November 16, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003830.参与此项研究的有来自中国天津医科大学（Tianjin Medical University）和美国耶鲁大学公共卫生学院（Yale School of Public Health, Yale University）的研究人员。此项研究对50-74岁健康人群的研究表明，喝咖啡或茶可能与降低中风和痴呆的风险有关，而且喝咖啡还能降低中风后痴呆的风险。
中风是危及生命的事件，导致全球10%的死亡。痴呆症是与脑功能（brain function）下降有关的症状的总称，是一个具有高经济和社会负担的全球健康问题。中风后痴呆是中风后出现痴呆症状的一种情况。张源（Yuan Zhang）和来自中国天津医科大学的同事们研究了来自英国生物样本库（UK Biobank）的365682名参与者，他们是在2006-2010年期间招募的，并跟踪他们到2020年。一开始，参与者自我报告他们的咖啡（coffee）和茶摄入量。在研究期间，5079名参与者患上了痴呆症，10053人至少经历过一次中风。
每天喝2-3杯咖啡或3-5杯茶，或同时喝4 - 6杯咖啡和茶的人患中风或痴呆的几率最低。每天喝2-3杯咖啡和2-3杯茶的人中风的风险降低了32% (HR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.59-0.79; P <0.001)和降低28%的痴呆症风险(HR, 0.72, 95% CI, 0.59-0.89; P =0.002)，与既不喝咖啡也不喝茶的人相比。单独饮用咖啡或同时饮用茶也能降低中风后痴呆的风险。
上述介绍，仅供参考。欲了解更多信息，敬请注意浏览原文或者相关报道。注意：过量饮用咖啡会减少脑容量，增加患痴呆症的风险（Excess coffee use shown to decrease brain volume, increase dementia risk）！
Stroke and dementia become an increasing global health concern and bring a heavy economic and social burden worldwide.
Considerable controversy exists on the association of coffee and tea consumption with stroke and dementia.
Little is known about the association between the combination of tea and coffee and the risk of stroke and dementia and poststroke dementia.
This study included 365,682 participants (50 to 74 years old) from the UK Biobank who reported their coffee and tea consumption.
We found that coffee intake of 2 to 3 cups/d or tea intake of 3 to 5 cups/d or their combination intake of 4 to 6 cups/d were linked with the lowest hazard ratio (HR) of incident stroke and dementia.
Drinking 2 to 3 cups of coffee with 2 to 3 cups of tea daily were associated with a 32% lower risk of stroke and a 28% lower risk of dementia.
Intake of coffee alone or in combination with tea was associated with lower risk of poststroke dementia.
These findings highlight a potential beneficial relationship between coffee and tea consumption and risk of stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia, although causality cannot be inferred.
These findings may be of interest to clinicians involved in the prevention and treatment of stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia.
Previous studies have revealed the involvement of coffee and tea in the development of stroke and dementia. However, little is known about the association between the combination of coffee and tea and the risk of stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations of coffee and tea separately and in combination with the risk of developing stroke and dementia.
Methods and findings
This prospective cohort study included 365,682 participants (50 to 74 years old) from the UK Biobank. Participants joined the study from 2006 to 2010 and were followed up until 2020. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations between coffee/tea consumption and incident stroke and dementia, adjusting for sex, age, ethnicity, qualification, income, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol status, smoking status, diet pattern, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), history of cancer, history of diabetes, history of cardiovascular arterial disease (CAD), and hypertension. Coffee and tea consumption was assessed at baseline. During a median follow-up of 11.4 years for new onset disease, 5,079 participants developed dementia, and 10,053 participants developed stroke. The associations of coffee and tea with stroke and dementia were nonlinear (P for nonlinear <0.01), and coffee intake of 2 to 3 cups/d or tea intake of 3 to 5 cups/d or their combination intake of 4 to 6 cups/d were linked with the lowest hazard ratio (HR) of incident stroke and dementia. Compared with those who did not drink tea and coffee, drinking 2 to 3 cups of coffee and 2 to 3 cups of tea per day was associated with a 32% (HR 0.68, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.79; P < 0.001) lower risk of stroke and a 28% (HR, 0.72, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.89; P = 0.002) lower risk of dementia. Moreover, the combination of coffee and tea consumption was associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Additionally, the combination of tea and coffee was associated with a lower risk of poststroke dementia, with the lowest risk of incident poststroke dementia at a daily consumption level of 3 to 6 cups of coffee and tea (HR, 0.52, 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.83; P = 0.007). The main limitations were that coffee and tea intake was self-reported at baseline and may not reflect long-term consumption patterns, unmeasured confounders in observational studies may result in biased effect estimates, and UK Biobank participants are not representative of the whole United Kingdom population.
We found that drinking coffee and tea separately or in combination were associated with lower risk of stroke and dementia. Intake of coffee alone or in combination with tea was associated with lower risk of poststroke dementia.