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中国的56量子位计算机已达到新的里程碑

已有 1198 次阅读 2021-7-14 16:19 |个人分类:新科技|系统分类:博客资讯

中国的56量子位计算机已达到新的里程碑

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据“物理学家组织网(Phys.org)”2021712日报道,中国的56量子位计算机已经达到新的里程碑水平——Chinese achieve new milestone with 56 qubit computer

报道介绍说,一群与中国多家机构相关的科学家,他们在中国科学技术大学(University of Science and Technology of China)进行研究工作,实际上在功能性量子计算机系统的进步方面实现了又一个转折点。该团队已经撰写了一篇论文,解释了其最新举措,并将其于2021628日已经发布到了arXiv预印本Web服务器——Yulin WuWan-Su BaoSirui CaoFusheng ChenMing-Cheng ChenXiawei ChenTung-Hsun ChungHui DengYajie DuDaojin FanMing GongCheng GuoChu GuoShaojun GuoLianchen HanLinyin HongHe-Liang HuangYong-Heng HuoLiping LiNa LiShaowei LiYuan LiFutian LiangChun LinJin LinHaoran QianDan QiaoHao RongHong SuLihua SunLiangyuan WangShiyu WangDachao WuYu XuKai YanWeifeng YangYang YangYangsen YeJianghan YinChong YingJiale YuChen ZhaCha ZhangHaibin ZhangKaili ZhangYiming ZhangHan ZhaoYouwei ZhaoLiang ZhouQingling ZhuChao-Yang LuCheng-Zhi PengXiaobo ZhuJian-Wei Pan. Strong quantum computational advantage using a superconducting quantum processor, arXiv:2106.14734 [quant-ph] arxiv.org/abs/2106.14734

参与此项研究的有来自中国科技大学现代物理系和合肥微尺度物理科学国家实验室(Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China)、中国科技大学中国科学院量子信息与量子物理卓越研究中心上海分中心(Shanghai Branch, CAS Center for Excellence in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China)、上海量子科学研究中心(Shanghai Research Center for Quantum Sciences)、河南省量子信息与密码重点实验室(Henan Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Cryptography, Zhengzhou 450000, China)、合肥科大国盾量子科技股份有限公司(QuantumCTek Co., Ltd., Hefei 230026, China)以及中国科学院上海技术物理研究所(Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)的科研人员。

早在 2019 年,谷歌的一个团队就介绍说,他们实际上已经通过他们的 Sycamore 制造商实现了量子卓越”——一个54量子比特的处理器(a 54 qubit processor),它执行的估计肯定需要一个标准的计算机系统大约10,000年才能完成。然而那个成就很快就被霍尼韦尔(Honeywell)的其他各个研究团队以及中国的一个研究团队超越。中国的研究团队使用了多种方法,其中包括使用光子量子位(photonic qubits——但它也是只会一招的小马。在这个全新的举措中,实际上由潘建伟院士领导的中国全新团队,又实现了一个新的转折点。

这项全新的举措是通过一个名为祖冲之(Zuchongzhi)的 2D 可编程计算机系统来实现的,该系统可以保持66个量子位。在他们的演示中,科学家们仅使用了其中的56个量子位来解决一个广为人知的计算机系统问题——随机量子电路的输出分布采样(sampling the output distribution of random quantum circuits)。这项工作需要各种计算机系统能力,这些能力包括数学分析mathematical analysis)、矩阵理论(matrix theory)、特定计算的复杂性以及概率论(probability theory)——这份工作比Sycamore两年前完成的工作难度高出100倍。之前的研究实际上表明,在中国制造的量子计算机之前建立的工作,肯定需要传统的计算机系统大约8年才能完成,而祖冲之量子计算机在不到一个半小时的时间内就完成了这项工作。该小组的成就表明,祖冲之量子计算机可以处理的不仅仅是一种类型的工作。它还表明,仅包含比 Sycamore 使用的量子位更多的2个量子位,可能会极大地增强量子计算机系统的能力。然而,也许更重要的是,它表明计算机科学家正朝着真正的目标迈进——开发一种广义量子计算机(generalized quantum computer),它可以用于许多传统计算机永远无法处理的现实世界应用。上述介绍仅供参考,欲了解更多信息敬请注意浏览原文(arxiv.org/abs/2106.14734)或者相关报道

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Abstractarxiv.org/abs/2106.14734

Scaling up to a large number of qubits with high-precision control is essential in the demonstrations of quantum computational advantage to exponentially outpace the classical hardware and algorithmic improvements. Here, we develop a two-dimensional programmable superconducting quantum processor, \textit{Zuchongzhi}, which is composed of 66 functional qubits in a tunable coupling architecture. To characterize the performance of the whole system, we perform random quantum circuits sampling for benchmarking, up to a system size of 56 qubits and 20 cycles. The computational cost of the classical simulation of this task is estimated to be 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the previous work on 53-qubit Sycamore processor [Nature \textbf{574}, 505 (2019)]. We estimate that the sampling task finished by \textit{Zuchongzhi} in about 1.2 hours will take the most powerful supercomputer at least 8 years. Our work establishes an unambiguous quantum computational advantage that is infeasible for classical computation in a reasonable amount of time. The high-precision and programmable quantum computing platform opens a new door to explore novel many-body phenomena and implement complex quantum algorithms.

将英文报道摘引于下:

Chinese achieve new milestone with 56 qubit computer

by Bob Yirka , Phys.org

REPORT

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Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

A team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in China, working at the University of Science and Technology of China, has achieved another milestone in the development of a usable quantum computer. The group has written a paper describing its latest efforts and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server.

Back in 2019, a team at Google announced that they had achieved "quantum supremacy" with their Sycamore machine—a 54 qubit processor that carried out a calculation that would have taken a traditional computer approximately 10,000 years to complete. But that achievement was soon surpassed by other teams from Honeywell and a team in China. The team in China used a different technique, one that involved the use of photonic qubits—but it was also a one-trick pony. In this new effort, the new team in China, which has been led by Jian-Wei Pan, who also led the prior team at the University of Science and Technology has achieved another milestone.

The new effort was conducted with a 2D programable computer called Zuchongzhi—one equipped to run with 66 qubits. In their demonstration, the researchers used only 56 of those qubits to tackle a well-known computer problem—sampling the output distribution of random quantum circuits. The task requires a variety of computer abilities that involve mathematical analysis, matrix theory, the complexity of certain computations and probability theory—a task approximately 100 times more challenging than the one carried out by Sycamore just two years ago. Prior research has suggested the task set before the Chinese machine would take a conventional computer approximately eight years to complete. Zuchongzhi completed the task in less than an hour and a half. The achievement by the team showed that the Zuchongzhi machine is capable of tackling more than just one kind of task. It also showed that adding just two more qubits than that used by Sycamore could increase the power of a quantum computer exponentially. But perhaps more importantly, it demonstrates that computer scientists are moving ever closer to the real prize—the development of a generalized quantum computer that can be used for a host of real-world applications that traditional computers will never be able to handle.

More information: Strong quantum computational advantage using a superconducting quantum processor, arXiv:2106.14734 [quant-ph] arxiv.org/abs/2106.14734



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