杨正瓴
[资料,图片,科普] 孟德尔老师 1856~1863 年豌豆杂交试验用的试验田(园子,花园)
2024-6-12 22:40
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[资料,图片,科普] 孟德尔老师 1856~1863 年豌豆杂交试验用的试验田(园子,花园)

                                     

孟德尔 Gregor Johann Mendel

园子 garden

豌豆 pea

布吕恩(捷克 布尔诺) Brno

奥古斯丁修道院 Starobrněnsky augustiniánsky klášter, Augustine monastery

纳普 Cyril František Napp

                      

                                     

   Between 1855 and 1863, he discovered the scientific basis of biological heredity by observing the formation and development of hybrids among the variants of the garden pea, Pisum sativum. Over nine years of meticulous experiments with more than 10,000 plants, he developed the theory that peas had properties—what would later be called “genes”—that controlled certain traits in germ cells.

   1855年至1863年间,他通过观察豌豆变种Pisum sativum杂交种的形成和发育,发现了生物遗传的科学基础。经过九年对一万多个植物的细致实验,他提出了豌豆具有控制生殖细胞某些特征的特性(后来被称为“基因”)的理论。

Mendel continued his variant studies in an experimental garden of 36 × 6 square.jpeg

   Mendel continued his variant studies in an experimental garden of 36 × 6 square meters, which was built next to the monastery wall in 1830 and separated from the rest of the garden. Between 1856 and 1863 he cultivated and tested 29,000 peas

   He crossed generation F1 to obtain generation F2, and in all cases, he found that one trait in each contrasting pair was more common than the other. Counting a large number of samples, he found that in each pair, the dominant trait was 3:1 more (3 yellow to 1 green) than the recessive trait. 

   孟德尔在一个36×6平方米的实验花园中继续他的变体研究,该花园于1830年建在修道院围墙旁,与花园的其他部分分开。1856年至1863年间,他种植并测试了29000颗豌豆

   他杂交F1代获得F2代,在所有情况下,他发现每对对比中的一个特征比另一个更常见。他统计了大量样本,发现每对中显性性状比隐性性状多3:1(3个黄色到1个绿色)。

https://malevus.com/gregor-mendel/

Hrothsige Frithowulf, 2023-07-05, Gregor Mendel: His Life, Theories, and Experiments

Gregor Mendel, the founder of the science of genetics, studied the problem of how the characteristics of a living species can be transmitted to its descendants.

                                     

                                     

201941163259.jpg

图1  201941163259.jpg

https://www.informuji.cz/data/201941163259.jpg

https://www.informuji.cz/objekt/12066-starobrnensky-augustiniansky-klaster/

                                     

Gregor Johann Mendel 11 1920px-starobrn_nsk_kl_ter_4.jpg

图2  Gregor Johann Mendel 11 1920px-starobrn_nsk_kl_ter_4.jpg

https://www.deutschland-lese.de/persoenlichkeiten/m/mendel-gregor-johann/gregor-johann-mendel/

https://www.deutschland-lese.de/persoenlichkeiten/m/mendel-gregor-johann/gregor-johann-mendel/

                                     

图3  Již 30 let zde žijí premonstráti Kl_Teplá_1.jpg

https://www.tripy.cz/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Kl_Tepl%C3%A1_1.jpg

https://www.tripy.cz/jiz-30-let-zde-ziji-premonstrati/

                                     

Brno, Augustiniánské opatství Teaser-2.jpg

图4  Brno, Augustiniánské opatství Teaser-2.webp

https://www.objevujpamatky.cz/Pam%C3%A1tky/Brno%2C%20Augustini%C3%A1nsk%C3%A9%20opatstv%C3%AD/image-thumb__120__w1440/Teaser-2.webp

https://www.objevujpamatky.cz/mendelovo-muzeum-mu

                                     

eccb0f64-55b9-4d9a-8472-b35ccec97c39.jpg

图5  eccb0f64-55b9-4d9a-8472-b35ccec97c39.webp

https://cdn.kudyznudy.cz/files/ec/eccb0f64-55b9-4d9a-8472-b35ccec97c39.webp?v=20230516111758

                                     

gregor-johann-morava-04-starobrnensky-klaster_galerie-980.jpg

图6  gregor-johann-morava-04-starobrnensky-klaster_galerie-980.jpg

https://g.denik.cz/1/28/gregor-johann-morava-04-starobrnensky-klaster_galerie-980.jpg

https://www.denik.cz/galerie/gregor-johann-mendel-morava-cestovani.html?back=3154379576-6431-1&photo=4

                                     

brno_augustiniansky_klaster_mendelovo_muzeum.jpg

图7  brno_augustiniansky_klaster_mendelovo_muzeum.jpg

https://cesky.radio.cz/sites/default/files/styles/lightbox/public/images/brno_augustiniansky_klaster_mendelovo_muzeum.jpg?itok=p5sEW-FD

https://cesky.radio.cz/johann-gregor-mendel-otec-a-zakladatel-informatiky-8066833

                                     

Chap02_Mendels_garden.gif

图8  Chap02_Mendels_garden.gif

Mendel's garden

(Augustinian Monastery of St. Thomas, Brno, Czech Republic)

孟德尔花园

(捷克共和国布尔诺圣托马斯奥古斯丁修道院)

https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Chap02_Mendels_garden.gif

https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Mendels_Garden.html

                                     

Pokusna-zahradka-ve-starobrnenskem-klastere-x-byt-v-nemz-bydlel-Mendel-a-kde-sep.jpg

图9  Pokusná zahrádka ve starobrněnském klášteře (x byt, v němž bydlel Mendel a kde sepsal nejvíce vědeckych prací)

老布尔诺修道院的实验花园(孟德尔居住的x公寓,也是他撰写大多数科学著作的地方)

https://www.fnusa.cz/wp-content/uploads/Pokusna-zahradka-ve-starobrnenskem-klastere-x-byt-v-nemz-bydlel-Mendel-a-kde-sepsal-nejvice-vedeckych-praci-1030x713.jpg

https://www.fnusa.cz/mendel-200-let-otec-genetiky-pusobil-take-u-sv-anny/

                                     

16177_mendelscope.jpg

图10  16177_mendelscope.jpg

Gregor Mendel 's Microscope 孟德尔使用的显微镜

https://content.dnalc.org/content/c16/16177/16177_mendelscope.jpg

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/16177-Gallery-3-Gregor-Mendel-s-Microscope.html

                                     

Gregor Mendel 's Bee Hives.jpg

图11  Gregor Mendel 's Bee Hives

Mendel designed and built these hives to do his bee breeding experiments.

孟德尔蜂房

孟德尔设计并建造了这些蜂箱来进行蜜蜂繁殖实验。

https://content.dnalc.org/content/c16/16175/16175_mendelsbees.jpg

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/16175-Gallery-3-Gregor-Mendel-s-Bee-Hives.html

                                     

Gregor Mendel's Garden Plot.jpg

图12  Gregor Mendel's Garden Plot

Mendel's garden plot at the Augustine monastery.

孟德尔在奥古斯丁修道院的花园。

https://content.dnalc.org/content/c16/16160/16160_070mendelgarden.jpg

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/16160-Gallery-2-Gregor-Mendel-s-Garden-Plot.html

                                     

Gregor Mendel's garden 10942.jpg

图13  Gregor Mendel's garden 10942.jpg

https://content.dnalc.org/content/c10/10942/10942.jpg

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/10942-Gregor-Mendel-s-garden.html

                                     

H4130129-Mendel_s_garden_at_Brno_monastery.jpg

图14  H4130129-Mendel_s_garden_at_Brno_monastery.jpg

https://media.sciencephoto.com/image/h4130129/800wm/H4130129-Mendel_s_garden_at_Brno_monastery.jpg

                                     

mendel-garden.jpg

mendel-garden.jpg

图15  1920s view of garden used by Mendel

孟德尔使用的1920年代花园景观

https://www.astronomynotes.com/science-religion/NormLevan/mendel-garden.jpg

https://www.astronomynotes.com/science-religion/NormLevan/s3-annot.htm

                                     

Gregor Mendel's garden pic_16.jpg

图16  Gregor Mendel's garden pic_16.jpg

Gregor Mendel's garden at Brno Augustinian Monastery

格雷戈尔·孟德尔在布尔诺奥古斯丁修道院的花园

https://www.langdale-associates.com/czecho_2009/part_2/images/pic_16.jpg

https://www.langdale-associates.com/czecho_2009/part_2/pic_16.htm

                                     

1428797_bigpicture_515581_topos_gregor_mendel_jubilaeum_19920101_pd5645_p.jpg

图17  1428797_bigpicture_515581_topos_gregor_mendel_jubilaeum_19920101_pd5645_p.jpg

https://assets.orf.at/mims/2022/30/81/crops/w=1280,q=90/1428797_bigpicture_515581_topos_gregor_mendel_jubilaeum_19920101_pd5645_p.jpg?s=c4c6f9c154f3122a7f43596ac69719064e9ed2c5

https://orf.at/stories/3276019/

                                          

Mendels garden.jpg

图18  Mendel's garden on the abbey grounds where experiments in pea genetics were done.

孟德尔在修道院的花园里进行了豌豆遗传学实验。

https://faculty.uca.edu/johnc/Mendel's%20garden.JPG

https://faculty.uca.edu/johnc/mendel1440.htm

                                                          

Gregor Mendel's garden  (5)_副本.jpg

图19  Gregor Mendel's garden  (5).png

https://www.sliderbase.com/images/referats/1089b/(5).PNG

https://www.sliderbase.com/spitem-1089-1.html

                                     

mendel_vcelin-5.jpg

图20  mendel_vcelin-5.jpg

https://cdn.muni.cz/media/3272487/mendel_vcelin-5.jpg

https://mendelmuseum.muni.cz/en/tours/garden-and-apiary

                                          

参考资料:

[1] 2023-08-25,孟德尔,G.J. /Gregor Johann Mendel/吴鹤龄,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=418856&Type=bkzyb&SubID=98039

[2] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Gregor Mendel's Garden Plot

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/16160-Gallery-2-Gregor-Mendel-s-Garden-Plot.html

[3] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Gregor Mendel's garden

https://dnalc.cshl.edu/view/10942-Gregor-Mendel-s-garden.html

                   

相关链接:

[1] 2024-06-11,[讨论] 祝王庆浩老师好运!(思维之谜的破译)

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1437780.html

[2] 2022-06-02,[讨论] 从孟德尔“豌豆实验”到流体力学 Navier–Stokes 方程

https://m.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1341284.html

[3] 2020-12-01,[建议] 重复孟德尔的生物学豌豆实验

https://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1260648.html

                        

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