杨正瓴
[小资料,图片] 世界主要渔场 fishing ground 与洋流 ocean circulation
2024-4-21 22:49
阅读:1089

[小资料,图片] 世界主要渔场 fishing ground 与洋流 ocean circulation

                                    

渔场 fishing ground

洋流 ocean circulation

海洋学 oceanography

                                    

一、世界主要渔场

1623893690010063078.jpg

图1  世界主要渔场形成示意图

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=233436&Type=bkzyb&SubID=73023

                                    

【每日一图】世界四大渔场分布图.jpg

图2  世界四大渔场分布图 

https://p1.itc.cn/q_70/images03/20230404/9d4408faab9e4eae874713452742cc9b.png

                                          

世界著名渔场与洋流 2019122920021807.jpg

图3  世界著名渔场与洋流

http://www.onegreen.net/maps/html/62065.html

                                    

世界洋流分布于渔场分布 p79645992.jpg

图4  世界洋流分布于渔场分布

https://img3.doubanio.com/view/note/l/public/p79645992.webp

                                    

wor2_c3a_s52_3-7_19_fishing_areas_fao_b.jpg

图5  wor2_c3a_s52_3-7_19_fishing_areas_fao_b.jpg

https://worldoceanreview.com/en/files/2013/04/wor2_c3a_s52_3-7_19_fishing_areas_fao_b.jpg

https://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-2/fisheries/state-of-fisheries-worldwide/

Around the world – the FAO fishing areas

The FAO divides the oceans into 19 major fishing areas. This regional classification has evolved over time. It simplifies the collection of data on fish catches, because the regional authorities and fishery associations work closely together. Other divisions – based on large-scale marine ecosystems, for example – might appear to make more sense today. Nonetheless, the FAO’s traditional division is still an effective way of making a global comparison. The 19 regions are in turn divided into three categories. The first comprises areas where the catches have been fluctuating since 1950. The second consists of areas where catches have fallen over the years, and the third category covers areas where catches have continuously increased. Here again the FAO bases its analysis on the roughly 500 fish stocks for which reliable stock calculations are available. However, four of the 19 areas – the Arctic and the three Antarctic areas – are not considered in more detail below, either because there is little fishing in these regions or because few of the stocks are exploited for commercial purposes.

                                                                        

World-Fishing1.png

图6  World-Fishing1.png

https://latenemaps.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/World-Fishing1.png

                                    

Global-Fishing-watch-map-1.jpg

图7  Global-Fishing-watch-map-1.jpg

https://inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2014/11/Global-Fishing-watch-map-1.jpg

监测公海活动的交互式全球捕鱼观察地图

捕鱼,全球捕鱼观察,大洋洲,过度捕捞,非法捕鱼,地图,互动地图,船只,卫星数据,大数据,谷歌

SkyTruth、Oceana和谷歌刚刚宣布发布一张交互式地图原型,旨在显示海洋中所有可追踪的捕鱼活动。全球渔业观察利用卫星数据创建了第一个商业捕鱼的全球视图,目的是提高人们对合法捕鱼强度的认识,同时强调有多少非法活动正在进行的问题。

                                    

gyres-ocean-currents-world-map.jpg

图8  gyres-ocean-currents-world-map.jpg

https://lotusarise.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/gyres-ocean-currents-world-map.jpg

https://lotusarise.com/qna/upsc/q-the-most-important-fishing-grounds-of-the-world-are-found-in-the-regions-where

The most important fishing grounds in the world are located in shallow water close to the land where there is the mixing of cold and warm currents from different regions.

The major fishing grounds on earth comprise

the seas north of Japan where the warm Kuroshio Current meets the cold Kamchatka Current;

the Grand Banks off Newfoundland where the North Atlantic Drift encounters the cold Labrador Current; and

the sea around Iceland where the North Atlantic Drift meets the East Greenland Current.

世界上最重要的渔场位于靠近陆地的浅水区,那里有来自不同地区的冷暖流混合。

地球上的主要渔场包括

日本北部海域,温暖的黑潮与寒冷的堪察加洋流交汇;

纽芬兰附近的格兰德班克斯,北大西洋漂移在那里遇到了寒冷的拉布拉多洋流;和

冰岛周围的海域,北大西洋漂移与东格陵兰洋流交汇。

                                    

McCauley_et_al_2018_HighIncome_global_fishing_effort-01-2-1.png

图9  McCauley_et_al_2018_HighIncome_global_fishing_effort-01-2-1.png

https://globalfishingwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/McCauley_et_al_2018_HighIncome_global_fishing_effort-01-2-1.png

Density distribution of global industrial fishing effort, derived using AIS data. Wealthy countries dominate industrial fishing, Science Advances. August 1, 2018.

利用AIS数据得出的全球工业捕鱼活动的密度分布。富裕国家主导工业捕鱼,科学进展。2018年8月1日。

https://globalfishingwatch.org/data/global-fishing-watch-2018-the-year-in-transparency/

                                    

Global-fishing-activity 2016.jpg

图10  Global-fishing-activity 2016.jpg

https://imgs.mongabay.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/20/2018/02/23043958/Global-fishing-activity.jpg

Global Fishing Watch. Founded by Oceana, SkyTruth and Google

https://globalfishingwatch.org/

                                 

二、洋流

ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector.jpg

图11  ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector.jpg

https://static.vecteezy.com/system/resources/previews/002/882/421/non_2x/ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector.jpg

                                    

112362-004-A382A7C9.jpg

图12  112362-004-A382A7C9.webp

https://cdn.britannica.com/62/112362-004-A382A7C9.jpg

This chart indicates the principal ocean surface currents during winter in the Northern Hemisphere. The currents are wind-driven. In the Northern Hemisphere they circulate in a clockwise direction, and in the Southern Hemisphere, in a counterclockwise direction. The currents on the western sides of the oceans are stronger and swifter than those on the eastern sides—an effect resulting from the deflecting force of the Earth's rotation. The Gulf Stream, a strong current, has meanders and sometimes throws off large eddies.

© Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

https://kids.britannica.com/students/assembly/view/166557

这张图表显示了北半球冬季的主要洋流。洋流是由风驱动的。在北半球,它们以顺时针方向循环,在南半球,则以逆时针方向循环。海洋西侧的洋流比东侧的洋流更强、更快,这是地球自转的偏转力造成的。墨西哥湾流是一股强大的水流,蜿蜒曲折,有时还会产生巨大的漩涡。

©英国百科全书,股份有限公司。

                                    

ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector 22.jpg

图13  ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector.jpg

https://static.vecteezy.com/system/resources/previews/002/988/393/original/ocean-currents-on-world-map-background-free-vector.jpg

https://www.vecteezy.com/vector-art/2988393-ocean-currents-on-world-map-background

                                    

1581007287518_CLIMATE_CHANGE_SPEEDING_UP_OCEANS.jpg

图14  1581007287518_CLIMATE_CHANGE_SPEEDING_UP_OCEANS.jpg

https://v.w-x.co/1581007287518_CLIMATE_CHANGE_SPEEDING_UP_OCEANS.jpg

                                  

ocean_currents_1943.jpg

图15  Ocean Currents and Sea Ice, 1943

https://commons.princeton.edu/mg/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Ocean_Currents_and_Sea_Ice,_1943.jpg

https://commons.princeton.edu/mg/ocean-currents-and-sea-ice-1943/

                       

参考资料:

[1] 2024-03-15,世界主要渔场/main fishing grounds in the world/陈新军,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=233436&Type=bkzyb&SubID=73023

   从渔场学形成原理分析,上升流渔场、流界渔场、涡流渔场、大陆架渔场和礁堆渔场等均属优良渔场之列。

[2] 2024-02-27,渔场/fishing ground/陈新军,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=233111&Type=bkzyb&SubID=72992

   天然水体中鱼类、虾、蟹、贝等海产经济动物分布比较集中,具有捕捞开发价值的水域。中国内陆水域的水产养殖基地也称为“渔场”.此处指海洋渔场。

   根据海洋学条件的不同可分为:①流界渔场。分布在两种不同水系交汇区附近的渔场。②上升流渔场。分布在上升流水域的渔场。③涡流渔场。分布在涡流附近水域的渔场。

[3] 2024-04-09,渔场学/fisheries of oceanography/陈新军,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=540074&Type=bkzyb&SubID=152081

   研究渔场形成和变迁的机制,以及渔况变动规律的应用学科。是捕捞学分支之一。

[4] 2024-04-09,渔场形成条件/fishing ground formation conditions/徐兆礼,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=82969&Type=bkzyb&SubID=72712

   从海洋环境的水文条件看,不同性质的海流或水团交汇而产生的界面,即海洋留隔区(或称锋面区、混合区),海况变化复杂,具有海水混合程度高,理化要素分布梯度大,饵料生物丰富等特征。

   从海洋理化因子看,渔业生物的不同种类和不同生活阶段对水温、盐度、水色、透明度等均有密切关系。鱼类的移动和集群与水温的水平梯度有密切关系,水温梯度大的区域,尤其是等温线呈袋状的水域,鱼群更为密集。

[5] 科普中国,2021-12-31,流隔渔场,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.kepuchina.cn/article/articleinfo?business_type=100&classify=0&ar_id=344649

   冷暖洋流交汇形成的流隔渔场多远离海岸,属于外海渔场。在世界知名的大渔场中:日本的北海道渔场、加拿大的纽芬兰渔场和不列颠群岛的北海渔场都属于流隔渔场。中国最大的流隔渔场是东海的舟山渔场,它也是中国最大的渔场。1

   形成原因鱼类都有自身适宜的水温和盐度,冷暖洋流间的水温差和盐度差,在交汇时形成了无形的“水障”,禁锢了鱼群的活动范围,使鱼群集中形成渔场。

[6] 2022-01-20,大洋环流/ocean circulation/王凡,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=154555&Type=bkzyb&SubID=124289

   大洋海水在海面风应力的驱动下,以及在太阳辐射、结冰融冰、降水和蒸发等热盐效应作用下,形成大范围的海水密度分布不均匀,便产生水平压强梯度力,使海水由某个海域向另一海域流动,形成首尾相接的独立环流系统或流旋。又称洋流。

   大洋环流分为主要由海表面风应力驱动的风生环流和主要由海表面热盐通量驱动的热盐环流。大洋环流除水平流外,还有垂直流动的升降流。

[7] 2023-05-29,大洋环流演化/evolution of ocean circulation/熊志方,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=242854&Type=bkzyb&SubID=76846

   大洋环流的变迁受到板块运动和陆块间各海水通道开闭的支配过程。是控制古气候变化(特别是新生代气候变冷)的基本因素之一。

[8] 2022-01-20,大洋环流西向强化/western intensification of ocean circulation/袁东亮,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=154359&Type=bkzyb&SubID=124296

   在大洋低、中纬度的副热带流旋中,西边界处海流有流幅变窄、流层加厚和流速增大的现象。

[9] 视频,NASA, 2017-06-09, Ocean Circulation Plays an Important Role in Absorbing Carbon from the Atmosphere

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12629

[10] 视频,NASA, 2011-11-10, Perpetual Ocean

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/10841

[11] 视频,NASA, 2011-05-10,Aquarius studies Ocean and Wind Flows

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/3829

                   

相关链接:

[1] 2023-10-17,[小资料,图片,观察] 尼诺:太平洋、大西洋、爪哇岛-苏门答腊岛

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1406296.html

[2] 2023-10-15,[打听,观察,讨论] “东亚-太平洋型”遥相关与地形相关吗?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1406023.html

[3] 2022-04-11,[小资料] 海洋能与潮汐能

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1333413.html

[4] 2022-04-10,[求助] 海洋蒸发量和降水量历史数据

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1333311.html

[5] 2022-01-07,[讨论] 夏天风速的功率谱特征:海洋、陆地(我国)

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1319963.html

[6] 2022-01-08,[求证] 古希腊文明与吃鱼有关系?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1320099.html

[7] 2022-09-12,[猜想] 日本“食育”与诺贝尔科学奖井喷

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1354999.html

[8] 2020-06-24,寻找共性:兴旺时期的贝尔实验室,和日本诺贝尔奖井喷

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1239188.html

                  

感谢您的指教!

感谢您指正以上任何错误!

感谢您提供更多的相关资料!

                  

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