杨正瓴
[打听,讨论,同行评议] 谁还记得“约翰·詹姆斯·沃特斯顿 John James Waterston”(kinetic
2024-4-20 22:51
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[打听,讨论,同行评议] 谁还记得“约翰·詹姆斯·沃特斯顿 John James Waterston”(kinetic theory of gases)?

                                    

气体动理论 kinetic theory of gases

沃特斯顿 John James Waterston

同行评议 peer review

                       

John James Waterston 11 Waterston.jpeg

图1  沃特斯顿 John James Waterston, 1811-?-? ~ 1884-06-18

https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Waterston/Waterston.jpeg

https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Waterston/

                       

Dr-John-James-Waterston-photographed-in-about-1870-after-Haldane-1928-lvi_W640.jpg

图2  Dr John James Waterston, photographed in about 1870 (after Haldane, 1928: lvi). 

约翰·詹姆斯·沃特斯顿博士,拍摄于1870年左右(源自霍尔丹,1928年:lvi)。

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ramesh-Kapoor/publication/354689441/figure/fig10/AS:1069747596701700@1632059110794/Dr-John-James-Waterston-photographed-in-about-1870-after-Haldane-1928-lvi_W640.jpg

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354689441_TALES_FROM_INDIA_THE_GREAT_MARCH_COMET_OF_1843_C1843_D1/figures?lo=1

                       

一、2016年Nature:1845年被拒稿后埋没的气体动理论(kinetic theory of gases)论文

   1845年,英国皇家学会拒稿了一篇气体动理论(kinetic theory of gases)论文,该文比著名的詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦论文(1859年)早了 14 年。

   A paper surfaces that was rejected by a Royal Society referee in 1845, outlining the kinetic theory of gases more than a decade before James Clerk Maxwell’s famous paper. 

https://www.nature.com/articles/532306a

                                 

   该文作者是约翰·詹姆斯·沃特斯顿 John James Waterston。

                       

https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Waterston/

   In 1845 Waterston's paper was communicated to the Royal Society in London, where it was read but rejected for publication by the Society's referees. As was the practice, Waterston's manuscript was not returned to him, but instead became the property of the Royal Society and was retained in the archives. Waterston had not made a copy of this complex manuscript and was unable to reconstruct it in sufficient detail to submit it for publication elsewhere. By the time he realised it would not be published by the Royal Society, his interest had passed on to the physical chemistry of liquids and gases.

   【机器翻译】1845年,Waterston的论文被转交给了伦敦皇家学会,在那里它被阅读,但被学会的审稿人拒绝发表。按照惯例,沃特斯顿的手稿没有归还给他,而是成为皇家学会的财产,并保留在档案馆中。Waterston没有复制这份复杂的手稿,也无法对其进行足够详细的重建,从而将其提交给其他地方出版。当他意识到这本书不会由英国皇家学会出版时,他的兴趣已经转移到了液体和气体的物理化学上。

                       

   It was Rayleigh who discovered Waterston's unpublished paper in 1891 and the Royal Society then published it when he pointed out that its importance in light of the later work along the same lines by Clausius and Maxwell. Rayleigh said that the paper represented:-

   ... an immense advance in the direction of the now generally received theory. The omission to publish it at the time was a misfortune which probably retarded the development of the subject by ten or fifteen years..

   【机器翻译】正是瑞利在1891年发现了沃特斯顿未发表的论文,英国皇家学会随后发表了这篇论文,当时他指出,鉴于克劳修斯和麦克斯韦后来的工作,这篇论文的重要性。瑞利表示,该论文代表:-

   ……朝着现在普遍接受的理论的方向迈出了巨大的步伐。当时没有出版这本书是一种不幸,可能会使这门学科的发展推迟十年或十五年……

                       

二、[羡慕] 沃特斯顿 John James Waterston 的气体动理论(kinetic theory of gases)论文最终发表了

   只是晚了 46 年。

   1884年去世 7 年之后。

   

   感谢瑞利勋爵(Lord Rayleigh, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh of Terling Place, 1942-11-12 ~ 1919-06-30

   假如没有瑞利勋爵???

            

参考资料:

[1] 2023-04-06,气体动理论/kinetic theory of gases/陈秉乾,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=235973&Type=bkzyb&SubID=143132

   19世纪中叶建立的以气体热现象为主要研究对象的经典微观统计理论。

[2] 2022-12-23,气体动理论/kinetic theory of gases/工程,中国大百科全书,第三版网络版[DB/OL]

https://www.zgbk.com/ecph/words?SiteID=1&ID=453899&Type=bkzyb&SubID=217939

[4] John James Waterston, MacTutor History of Mathematics MacTutor History of Mathematics

https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Waterston/

[5] Alex Csiszar.  Peer review: Troubled from the start[J]. Nature, 2016, 532(7599): 306-308.

doi:  10.1038/532306a

https://www.nature.com/articles/532306a

   1892 A paper surfaces that was rejected by a Royal Society referee in 1845, outlining the kinetic theory of gases more than a decade before James Clerk Maxwell’s famous paper. Might referee systems be fundamentally flawed?

[6] History of Kinetic Theory, Dave Levermore, Professor, University of Maryland, College Park

http://math.umd.edu/~lvrmr/History/

   1845, John James Waterston: His "lost manuscript" is submitted to the Royal Society, rejected, and buried in the archives.

   1845年,约翰·詹姆斯·沃特斯顿:他的“遗失手稿”被提交给英国皇家学会,被拒绝,并被埋葬在档案馆。

[7] Stephen G. Brush. John James Waterston and the kinetic theory of gases [J]. American Scientist, 1961, 49(2): 202-214.  JUNE 1961

doi:  10.2307/27827788

https://www.jstor.org/stable/27827788?seq=1  

[8] 2019-11-19, 同行评议的局限性和改进之策[J]. 《科技中国》2019年第十一期pp.34-36.  杨正瓴. 同行评议的局限性和改进之策[J]. 科技中国, 2019, (11): 34-36.

http://www.casted.org.cn/channel/newsinfo/7562

                   

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