杨正瓴
[图片] 二粒小麦
2023-11-30 22:16
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[图片] 二粒小麦

                                                                             

野生二粒小麦: Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides

                                     

Fig. 3 Model of the phylogenetic history of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; AABBDD)..jpeg

Fig. 3 Model of the phylogenetic history of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; AABBDD).

Approximate dates for divergence and the three hybridization events are given in white circles in units of million years ago. Differentiation of the wheat lineage (Triticum and Aegilops) from a common ancestor into the A and B genome lineages began ~6.5 Ma. The first hybridization occurred ~5.5 Ma between the A and B genome lineages and led to the origin of the D genome lineage by homoploid hybrid speciation. The second hybridization, between a close relative (BB) of Ae. speltoides and T. urartu (AA), gave rise to the allotetraploid emmer wheat (T. turgidum; AABB) by polyploidization. Bread wheat originated by allopolyploidization from a third hybridization, between emmer wheat and Ae. tauschii (DD). The three diploid lineages are indicated with color and labels. Inflorescences (spikes) illustrate extant species closely related to those involved in the polyploidizations.

原文的图3  面包小麦系统发育史模型(小麦;AABBDD)。

【机器翻译】以百万年前为单位的白色圆圈中给出了分歧和三次杂交事件的大致日期。小麦谱系(小麦和山羊草)从一个共同祖先分化为a和B基因组谱系开始约6.5Ma。第一次杂交发生在a和B基因谱系之间约5.5Ma,并通过同源体杂交物种形成导致D基因组谱系的起源。第二次杂交,在Ae.speltoides的近亲(BB)和T.urartu(AA)之间,通过多倍体化产生了异四倍体二粒小麦(T.turgidum;AABB)。面包小麦起源于二粒小麦和小麦之间的第三次杂交的异源多倍体。三个二倍体谱系用颜色和标签表示。花序(穗状花序)说明了与多倍体化相关的现存物种。

https://www.science.org/cms/10.1126/science.1250092/asset/a129c9e6-0a28-475f-a8d3-1e289156c546/assets/graphic/345_1250092_f3.jpeg

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1250092

                             

   麻烦一点的就是剩下的一套染色体,普通小麦中我们把它称为B基因组,而从@银笙的图中你看到的是S基因组。这仍是一笔糊涂账:我们找不到B基因组的直接供体,S基因组是与B基因组最像的,应该也是其供体,一种观点认为,B基因组来自于与众多S/B基因组的不断杂交,遗传物质渐渐渗入而产生的。

https://www.zhihu.com/question/273528802

                                     

野生二粒小麦(Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides).jpg

图1  野生二粒小麦(Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides)拉丁名学名属名科名植物生活型图片

http://img.maps4gis.com/plant/%E9%87%8E%E7%94%9F%E4%BA%8C%E7%B2%92%E5%B0%8F%E9%BA%A6.jpg

http://www.maps4gis.com/a/plant/15746.html

                             
Triticum dicoccum Schubl   617340_88c1a72a.jpg

图2  Triticum dicoccum Schübl. (семейство Poaceae) Пшеница двузернянка

https://www.plantarium.ru/dat/plants/3/340/617340_88c1a72a.jpg

https://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/617340.html

                              

不是学植物的。不敢多贴图片了。认不准。

                        

参考资料:

[1] 科普中国,2023-11-28,从“圣安东尼之火”到盐碱地种植,小麦如何改变人类?

https://www.kepuchina.cn/article/articleinfo?business_type=100&classify=0&ar_id=461633

[2] 野生二粒小麦(Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides)拉丁名学名属名科名植物生活型图片

http://www.maps4gis.com/a/plant/15746.html

[3] 二粒小麦,百度百科

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BA%8C%E7%B2%92%E5%B0%8F%E9%BA%A6?fromModule=lemma_search-box

[4] 知乎,2018-07-11,小麦起源于哪里?

https://www.zhihu.com/question/273528802

[5] 知乎,2018-05-29,小麦的物种起源在何方?

https://www.zhihu.com/question/40196781

[6] Triticum dicoccum Schübl. (семейство Poaceae)Пшеница двузернянка Полба  Полба европейская

https://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/617340.html  

[7] Thomas Marcussen, Simen R. Sandve, Lise Heier, Manuel Spannagl, Matthias Pfeifer, The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Brande B. H Wulff, Burkhard Steuernagel, Klaus F. X. Mayer, Odd-Arne Olsen. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat [J]. Science, 2014, 345(6194 Special IssueSI): 1250092

doi:  10.1126/science.1250092

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1250092

                   

相关链接:

[1] 2023-11-29,[小资料] 节节麦(Aegilops tauschii,粗山羊草)照片

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1411773.html

[2] 2023-11-22,[内因、外因] 强筋小麦育种、小麦、新月沃土(Fertile Crescent)

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1410741.html

                              

感谢您的指教!

感谢您指正以上任何错误!

感谢您提供更多的相关资料!

                              

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