小柯机器人

单细胞测序揭示肺泡中毛细血管类型的分化
2020-10-17 22:46

美国斯坦福大学医学院Ross J. Metzger、Mark A. Krasnow等研究人员合作揭示肺泡中毛细血管类型的分化。相关论文于2020年10月14日在线发表在《自然》杂志上。

研究人员使用单细胞分析来阐明了肺泡毛细血管内皮细胞的细胞类型、发育、更新和进化。研究人员发现,肺泡毛细血管是呈马赛克状的;与沿肺泡排列的上皮相似,肺泡内皮由两种混合的细胞类型组成,具有复杂的“瑞士奶酪”样的形态和独特的功能。
 
第一种细胞类型,被称为“aerocyte”,专门用于气体交换和白细胞运输,并且是肺部特有的。另一种称为gCap(“普通”毛细血管)的细胞类型专门用于调节血管舒缩张力,并在毛细血管稳态和修复中起干/祖细胞的作用。两种细胞从双能祖细胞发育而来,逐渐成熟,并且在疾病和衰老过程中受到不同的影响。
 
这种细胞类型的特化在小鼠和人的肺之间是保守的,但是在鳄鱼肺或乌龟肺中却没有发现,这表明它是在哺乳动物肺的进化过程中出现的。肺泡毛细血管中细胞类型特化的发现改变了人们对健康、疾病和进化中气血屏障和气体交换的结构、功能、调节和维持等方面的了解。
 
据介绍,在哺乳动物的肺中,每个肺泡周围都围绕着看似均匀的毛细血管网,形成了广阔的呼吸表面,氧气通过该呼吸表面转移到血液中。
 
附:英文原文

Title: Capillary cell-type specialization in the alveolus

Author: Astrid Gillich, Fan Zhang, Colleen G. Farmer, Kyle J. Travaglini, Serena Y. Tan, Mingxia Gu, Bin Zhou, Jeffrey A. Feinstein, Mark A. Krasnow, Ross J. Metzger

Issue&Volume: 2020-10-14

Abstract: In the mammalian lung, an apparently homogenous mesh of capillary vessels surrounds each alveolus, forming the vast respiratory surface across which oxygen transfers to the blood1. Here we use single-cell analysis to elucidate the cell types, development, renewal and evolution of the alveolar capillary endothelium. We show that alveolar capillaries are mosaics; similar to the epithelium that lines the alveolus, the alveolar endothelium is made up of two intermingled cell types, with complex ‘Swiss-cheese’-like morphologies and distinct functions. The first cell type, which we term the ‘aerocyte’, is specialized for gas exchange and the trafficking of leukocytes, and is unique to the lung. The other cell type, termed gCap (‘general’ capillary), is specialized to regulate vasomotor tone, and functions as a stem/progenitor cell in capillary homeostasis and repair. The two cell types develop from bipotent progenitors, mature gradually and are affected differently in disease and during ageing. This cell-type specialization is conserved between mouse and human lungs but is not found in alligator or turtle lungs, suggesting it arose during the evolution of the mammalian lung. The discovery of cell type specialization in alveolar capillaries transforms our understanding of the structure, function, regulation and maintenance of the air–blood barrier and gas exchange in health, disease and evolution.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2822-7

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2822-7

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

分享到:

0