德国欧洲分子生物学实验室Justin Crocker、美国霍华德.休斯医学研究所David L. Stern等研究人员，合作揭示发育增强子中的密集且多效性的调控信息。 2020年10月14日，国际知名学术期刊《自然》在线发表了这一成果。
Title: Dense and pleiotropic regulatory information in a developmental enhancer
Author: Timothy Fuqua, Jeff Jordan, Maria Elize van Breugel, Aliaksandr Halavatyi, Christian Tischer, Peter Polidoro, Namiko Abe, Albert Tsai, Richard S. Mann, David L. Stern, Justin Crocker
Abstract: Changes in gene regulation underlie much of phenotypic evolution1. However, our understanding of the potential for regulatory evolution is biased, because most evidence comes from either natural variation or limited experimental perturbations2. Using an automated robotics pipeline, we surveyed an unbiased mutation library for a developmental enhancer in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that almost all mutations altered gene expression and that parameters of gene expression—levels, location, and state—were convolved. The widespread pleiotropic effects of most mutations may constrain the evolvability of developmental enhancers. Consistent with these observations, comparisons of diverse Drosophila larvae revealed apparent biases in the phenotypes influenced by the enhancer. Developmental enhancers may encode a higher density of regulatory information than has been appreciated previously, imposing constraints on regulatory evolution. A robotic pipeline is used to survey a library of mutations in a Drosphila gene enhancer, showing that most mutations altered gene expression and had widespread pleiotropic effects that are likely to constrain regulatory evolution.