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生态系统恶化加剧生物多样性和栖息地的丧失
2020-07-31 13:56

德国综合生物多样性研究中心(IDEV)Jonathan M. Chase课题组的最新研究,揭示了生态系统恶化加剧了生物多样性和栖息地的丧失。这一研究成果在线发表在2020年7月29日出版的《自然》杂志上。

在本研究中,研究人员分析了123项研究以评估被动采样和生态系统衰退对生物多样性丧失的影响,这些研究探究了从多个栖息地不同大小碎片中提取的主要分类群组合水平的丰度。研究人员发现了总体支持生态系统衰退假说的依据。在所有研究,生态系统和生物分类中,从较小栖息地碎片中提取的生物多样性估计值(在为抽样工作进行控制的情况下),与从较大栖息地碎片样本中获得的预期相比,所包含的个体、物种和社区数量更少。

但是,在某些研究中(例如那些栖息地丧失发生在100多年前的研究),生态系统退化造成的多样性丧失低于对总体的预期,这是由于物种成分转换最初并非存在于完整的栖息地中。研究人员认为将栖息地丧失对生物多样性变化的非被动影响纳入考虑范围内,将改善未来土地利用情况下生物多样性的丰度,并规划保护和恢复栖息地。

据介绍,尽管栖息地的丧失是导致“人类世”生物多样性丧失的主要因素,但这种丧失的确切表现方式和规模仍然存有争论。“被动采样”假说认为物种在自然栖息地中的流失与其物种的丰富度和分布成比例,而“生态系统衰落”假说则认为,生态演化在更小、更孤立的栖息地中发生变化,从而导致比原先预期更多物种的流失这仅仅是由栖息地丧失造成的。这些假设的一般性检验受到异质取样的局限,并且只着眼于对规模物种丰富度的估计。

附:英文原文

Title: Ecosystem decay exacerbates biodiversity loss with habitat loss

Author: Jonathan M. Chase, Shane A. Blowes, Tiffany M. Knight, Katharina Gerstner, Felix May

Issue&Volume: 2020-07-29

Abstract: Although habitat loss is the predominant factor leading to biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene1,2, exactly how this loss manifests—and at which scales—remains a central debate3,4,5,6. The ‘passive sampling’ hypothesis suggests that species are lost in proportion to their abundance and distribution in the natural habitat7,8, whereas the ‘ecosystem decay’ hypothesis suggests that ecological processes change in smaller and more-isolated habitats such that more species are lost than would have been expected simply through loss of habitat alone9,10. Generalizable tests of these hypotheses have been limited by heterogeneous sampling designs and a narrow focus on estimates of species richness that are strongly dependent on scale. Here we analyse 123 studies of assemblage-level abundances of focal taxa taken from multiple habitat fragments of varying size to evaluate the influence of passive sampling and ecosystem decay on biodiversity loss. We found overall support for the ecosystem decay hypothesis. Across all studies, ecosystems and taxa, biodiversity estimates from smaller habitat fragments—when controlled for sampling effort—contain fewer individuals, fewer species and less-even communities than expected from a sample of larger fragments. However, the diversity loss due to ecosystem decay in some studies (for example, those in which habitat loss took place more than 100 years ago) was less than expected from the overall pattern, as a result of compositional turnover by species that were not originally present in the intact habitats. We conclude that the incorporation of non-passive effects of habitat loss on biodiversity change will improve biodiversity scenarios under future land use, and planning for habitat protection and restoration.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2531-2

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2531-2

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

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