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走马观花:杜鲁门总统的“小白宫”在Key West

已有 7431 次阅读 2008-3-28 21:04 |个人分类:摄影图片集锦(08)|系统分类:图片百科

走马观花:杜鲁门总统的“小白宫Key West

黄安年文  黄安年的博客/2008328日发布

自美国到加勒比海游轮旅游,大都出于对于自然风光的欣赏, Key West是必经之地,有时间还想对历史遗迹作些了解,除了参观文化和历史博物馆外,其实还有Key WEST Art & Historical Society, Mel Fisher Maritime Museum, Lighthouse Museum, Hemingway House, Oldest House, Key West Shipwreck Treasures Museum, East Martello Fort & Museum等地可以参观,在这里住过的著名作家不仅有海明威,还有Tennessee William, James Audubon, Robert Frost等。也许以后有机会专门来Key West住上几天才能实现这个意愿。

 

318日下午趁离回游轮还有不到半小时的时间,笔者匆匆忙忙地看了一下杜鲁门在Key West的小白宫(Harry S. Truman Little White House)。该博物馆离世纪游轮停泊的码头仅有5分钟步行路程,如果事前我们在网上查看Key West资料或者仔细阅读一下Celebrity Today,(318)的话,也许不会错过这个机会的。另一个角度看问题, Key West旅游服务和世纪游轮的宣传还不到家,如果游轮上就看到Key West的导游资料,也是不会错过的。其实不仅杜鲁门,而且肯尼迪、卡特、克林顿都到过在Key West的小白宫。

 

依笔者之见, Key West的特殊地理位置决定她不仅是美国的军事重镇,自然景观旅游胜地,而且是人文研究的重要阵地,也是美国历史某些事件的见证人,我们的美国历史研究者需要对这座港口城市有所了解,如果实地考察必将受益匪浅。

 

下面的照片21幅为笔者所摄。

 

下面是有关Harry S. Truman Little White House的资料

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WELCOME TO THE TRUMAN

LITTLE WHITE HOUSE

History has left its mark on the Truman Little White House since 1890 when it initially served as the command headquarters of the naval station during the Spanish American War, World War I and World War II. In 1946 the historic building first served as the winter White House of President Harry S. Truman and a site for the Cold War response by later presidents. Today, the Truman Little White House is a public, living museum as well as a retreat and place of government business by our nation's leaders.

KEY WEST

HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

The eleven trips of President Harry S. Truman were recorded in official trip logs. Often regarded as mere souvenirs for family and staff, a more careful reading reveal clues as to the working of the president in Key West. There are numerous mentions of key staff, both political and military, flying into Key West to meet with President Truman. What they did and what was said are not revealed in the logs as the details may have been classified at the time. These presidential logs

provide starting points for more detailed research for the serious student and provide personal insight into the life of the president on vacation for the causual reader.

THE LITTLE WHITE HOUSE

RESTORATION PROJECT

 

In 1974, changing technologies closed the Key West Submarine Base and the Little White House went through a twelve year period of disuse. On

January 1, 1987, the title to this presidential museum was transferred to the state of Florida for permanent protection. Beginning in 1988, more than two million dollars have been privately raised and gone into its restoration. Although owned by the state of Florida, the Truman Little White House receives no regular financial support from the state or federal government. Please consider a gift to our not-for-profit foundation to enable the much needed restoration process to continue.

TRUMAN LITTLE WHITE HOUSE

TEACHER RESOURCES

 

The Little White House provides a workshop in democracy in that six

American Presidents have used the site. Three as a vacation retreat, two

as a working White House location where the business of government was

conducted and one as a summit site. The tour is fully narrated by professional trained docents. It is age appropriate for grades 4 to adult. As the State of Florida's only presidential museum, admission for student groups is extremely reasonable. Reservations are required.

The Truman Presidential Library, www.TrumanLibrary.org of Independence, Missouri is the official National Archives presidential library and we encourage you to visit their site for lesson plans on President Harry S. Truman.

Pre-field trip or post field trip readings might include topics discussed during the Little White House tour. The tours are structured to the grade level. The tour topics include use of the atomic bomb, de-segration of the federal workforce and the branches of the armed services, recognition of Israel, The Berlin Airlift, the Truman Doctrine that changed US foreign policy, the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); creation of Everglades National Park, the Korean War.

PROJECTS THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED:

 

Reports can be given using primary source material available from the

trumanlibrary.org website thus encouraging research skills and the use

of the internet.

 

Posters and collages can made using photos downloaded from this website or at trumanlibrary.org

Curriculum guides are under development.

http://www.trumanlittlewhitehouse.com/key-west/white-house-teacher-resources.htm

 

TRUMAN LITTLE WHITE HOUSE

HOUSE HISTORY

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Built in 1890 on the waterfront as a two-family dwelling for the base

commandant and paymaster, this building was known as Quarters A and B.

It served as command headquarters during the Spanish American War. In

order to accommodate the larger scale ships, the harbor was dredged in 1909 and the land filled in front of the house. It was converted into a

single-family residence in 1911. President William Howard Taft visited this site in December 1912. Scientist Edward Hayden served as base commander from 1912 to 1915 and was involved in hurricane research. In

1918, inventor Thomas Edison lived here for six months while inventing

41 new weapons for the war effort.

During World War II, the Key West Naval Station was heavily involved in

protecting Allied shipping in the Straits of Florida. A number of Allied

ships and German U-boats were sunk off Key West. The Fleet Sonar school, Underwater Swimmers School, later known as Scuba, and Underwater Explosives School were headquartered at the Key West Naval Station. Detachments included surface craft, submarines and the Naval Air

Station. Beginning in November 1946,President Truman used this house for 175 days as his Winter White House during his administration of 1945

-1953. He spent 11 working vacations here and the building became known as the Little White House. In 1948, the Joint Chiefs of Staff met at

this house to create the Department of Defense by merging the Department of War and Department of the Navy.

While here, President Truman discussed the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine that changed American foreign policy, the

recognition of the State of Israel. He wrote his fourth Civil Rights

Executive Order requiring federal contractors hire minorities and he drafted a letter that called for a two week cease fire in Korea. The reaction of General Douglas MacArthur to this letter led to his dismissal as Allied Commander. While insisting he was on vacation, the President ultimately confessed in a family letter he was signing his name 200 to 600 times a day to official business...the work of the president never ends , it just follows him.

President Truman made 5 post-presidential visits to Key West between

1957 and 1969. Each time visiting his former Little White House, but

staying in a private residence in town.

President Dwight Eisenhower used the house for meetings in December 1955 and January 1956 while he recovered from a heart attack.

President John F. Kennedy used this site for a summit meeting with

British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on March 26, 1961 just 23 days before the Bay of Pigs. On November 26,1962 he returned following the Cuban missile crisis for an inspection tour.

In April, 1972, King Hussein I of Jordan was a guest of RADM John Maurer.

The Navy base was named the Truman Annex in 1973 following the death of President Truman in December 1972. The Little White House was

individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 12, 1974 by the US Department of the Interior. On March 31, 1974, this portion of the base closed .

For twelve years the property was abandoned. In 1986 the Truman Annex

including the Little White House, was sold by the government to Pritam

Singh, a developer from Maine. On January 1,1987, Mr. Singh transferred

this property to the State of Florida in exchange for certain easements

and development rights. It is held in trust by the state for the citizens of the world. Over the next three years, Mr. Singh privately funded and directed the restoration of the building and the grounds to reflect the Truman era. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Drettman of Grosse Point, Michigan became major benefactors in the 1990s. In 1996, President and Mrs. Jimmy Carter used the house for a family gathering. In 1999, Historic Tours of America (r), headquartered in Key West, entered into an agreement with the State of Florida to help continue the restoration and became a major donor and corporate sponsor of this important historic site.

On April 2-6, 2001, Secretary of State Colin Powell opened peace talks

in this house between the Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan.

In 2005, President Bill and Senator Hillary Clinton used the house as a

weekend retreat.

In December 2007, former President Jimmy Carter and family returned for

a visit.

Its place in history is ongoing. Its future, however, lies in the hands of citizens who care. You, too, can become a part of our history through your contributions.

Presidential Visits Gallery

http://www.trumanlittlewhitehouse.com/key-west/history-little-white-house-museum.htm

 

HARRY S. TRUMAN

BIOGRAPHY

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Harry S. Truman, the 33rd president of the United States, was born on May 8, 1884 in Lamar, Missouri. In 1890, the year the Little White House

was built, the Truman's moved to Independence, Missouri.

 

His poor eyesight prevented Truman from participating in sports but led him to two of his greatest passions, reading and music. An avid reader, he was proud of the fact that he had read every book in the Independence Public Library. Truman was also a fine musician, playing the piano.

An excellent student, Truman's parents were unable to afford college for Harry and his eyesight prevented him from attending West Point. Following his high school graduation in 1901, Truman worked at a variety of jobs including farming, oil drilling and banking. In 1917, with World War I in full force, Truman joined the Army. He served in France and left the army as a captain in May of 1919. One month later, he married

Elizabeth Wallace.

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Harry S. Truman and his wife, Elizabeth "Bess" Wallace during their wedding day in 1919.

After failing in the haberdashery business, Truman ran for county judge (the title for a county commissioner) in Jackson County, MO. In 1924, he

ran for re-election and lost, the only election he ever lost. In 1926 he was again elected judge, a post he held until 1934 when he ran for the U.S. Senate and won. During World War II, Senator Truman headed the Truman Commission that investigated fraud in defense contracts. Truman was responsible for saving the government several million dollars. He remained in the Senate until President Franklin Roosevelt tapped him as his running mate for his fourth term in 1944.

On April 12, 1945, less than three months as vice president, Harry S. Truman was sworn in as the 33rd President of the United States following the unexpected death of Roosevelt. Truman faced some of the most complex issues to ever face any world leader.

 

Internationally these decisions included the decision to drop the atomic bomb to end World War II, the daunting task of re-building both Europe and Japan, the changing of American foreign policy.

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Harry S. Truman takes the oath of office on April 12, 1945 while his wife Bess and daughter Margaret look on.

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Harry S. Truman in St. Louis the morning after defeating Thomas Dewey in 1948.

The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council (NSC), the recognition of the State of Israel, the response to the Cold War and our involvement in the Korean War were also decisions that Truman faced.

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Harry Truman aboard The Eagle, a three-masted sailing barque.

Domestic issues proved equally challenging with issues of labor unrest, expansion of the GI bill for returning veterans, a proposal for national health care and the issuing of four civil rights executive orders made Truman not particularly popular during his terms in office. Yet today, Truman is thought to be one of the best presidents in U.S. history.

On December 26, 1972, Harry S. Truman died in Kansas City, MO at the age of 88. In the year 2000, a C-Span Poll ranking of all U.S. Presidents was conducted by 58 presidential historians and scholars. Harry S. Truman ranked 5th behind Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Washington and Theodore Roosevelt.

http://www.trumanlittlewhitehouse.com/key-west/president-truman-biography.htm



















































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