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科技写作漫谈(93):选词要恰当

已有 6741 次阅读 2012-9-7 07:23 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:论文交流| color, background, black, Yellow

 

在科技写作中,相当多的词和短语被错用或被混淆。被错用的词可以分为如下几类:带后缀的词、动词、副词、形容词和连词。

-ability如果句中使用了带后缀-ability的词,通常都需要改写,用can后跟一个更有力的动词替代。

例:Changeability of X occurs when Y is added

改:X can change when Y is added.

-ization很多作者喜欢在动词后面加-ation-ization,以这种方式创造名词很值得质疑。

例:Metabolization of phosphates was different than expected

改:Phosphates were metabolized differently than expected.

-ize很多时候作者会错误地以为在名词或形容词后面加上-ize便可以变成动词。

例:Older patients were prioritized.

改:Older patients were given priority.

-ized/-izing对词根为-ized –izing的形容词也应该保持警惕,并寻找更简洁的词替代。

例:Individualized doses were calculated Nanoscience has a transformatizing impact on various Technologies.

改:Individual doses were calculated Nanoscience has a transformative impact on various Technologies.

或更好的修改:Nanoscience transformas various technologies.

-ology-ology结尾的词表示某某学,且为科技领域中的行话,比如:

例:No pathology was found. / Cytology was normal. / Symptomology was severe. / Serology was negative.

: No pathologic condition was found. / Cytologic findings were normal. / Symptoms were severe. / Serologic findings was normal.

避免性别歧视

性别歧视包括所有口头或文字表示的男女不平等,或排挤一方支持另一方。虽然可能出于无意,但写作中性别歧视的表现方式很多,有些非常微妙,除非被指明否则作者不一定会注意到。在英语中可以通过使用复数形式的代词they和复数动词来避免这一难题。

Man is not the only host for this parasite.

改:Humans are not the only host for this parasite.

例:A nurse should double-check her IV settings.

改:Nurses should double-check their IV settings.

 

练习:选择填空

1. like, as:

Plasmids were isolated    described by Beates(17).

Our observations for C1P1-GpP localization were    those of Andrews et al. (1989).

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a naturally occurring greenhouse gas formed    a product of photochemical reactions.

The energy is transferred to the lattice before the electrons heat up to temperatures,   they do in Cu.

2. enhance, increase:

Metal atoms    the relative intensity of the band at 476 nm.

Soluble silicon in plants also has an active function in    host resistance to plant diseases.

3. while, whereas:

Colonies of DH5 alpha cells transformed with the AB construct were able to degrade naphthalene,

    negative control cells were not.

The first enzyme was added    the DNA mixtures were incubating at 37℃.

Tropical forests growing on highly weathered soils exhibit conservative P-cycling processes,

     conservative N-cycling properties are more common on younger soils.

Temperatures above 20℃ favor the production of the 619 nm species,   at 15℃,an increase of intensity of the 476 nm band is observed.

4. varying, various:

     water levels in a pond are often the result of climate conditions.

Each student received    concentrations of NaCl solution for the experiment.

     animals rely on darknness to hide, to catch prey, to mate, or to interact.

Different varieties of semiconductors layered in solar cells respond to photons of

     energies to produce electricity.

Electrodes can be of    sizes.

5. effect, affect:

Nutrition concentration was the most important factor    population size.

Although the cows were given steroids,the drugs had little    .

Ozone causes cellular damage inside leaves that adversely    plant production.

Energy supplies by electrons and ions or chemical reaction (e.g., oxidation) with impurities are just some of the    that might be responsible for luminescence via matrix.

6. include, consist of:

Her research interests    all areas of biochemistry and structural biology.

Components of Hyperion’s crust    solid H2O and CO2.

7. that, which:

Fish    live in caves show many adaptations to living in darkness.

At one electrode,hydrogen molecules are stripped of their electrons,     are then sent through an external circuit to do work.

Adaptive immune responses recognize novel viral antigens    are not invariant but nevertheless are foreign to the infected organism.

8. represents, is:

25 mg of ketamine    an overdose of anesthetic for mice.

The Born-Oppenheimer approximation of uncoupled electronic and nuclear motion    a standard tool of the computational chemist.

9. infers, implies:

Both curves are of an identical shape, which    a constant front profile as well as a constant velocity.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has been criticized for    that climate-envelope models are more precise than they actually are.

10. can, may:

It    appear that Table 1 contains an essentially complete summary of patterns that occur in electrochemical systems.

Huge numbers of species    be at risk of extinction from climate change.

 

参考答案

1. like, as:

as described by Beates (17).

like those of Andrews et al. (1989).

as a product of photochemical reactions

like they do in Cu.

2. enhance, increase:

…increase the relative intensity of the band at 476 nm.

enhancing host resistance to plant diseases.

3. while, whereas:

…whereas negative control cells were not.

while the DNA mixtures were incubating at 37 °C.

whereas conservative N-cycling properties are more common on younger soils.

whereas at 15 °C, an increase of intensity of the 476 nm band is observed.

4. varying, various:

Varying water levels in a pond…

various concentrations of NaC1 solution for the experiment.

Various animals rely on darkness to hide, to catch prey, to mate, to interact.

varying energies to produce electricity.

various sizes.

5. effect, affect:

affecting population size.

… had little effect.

…affect plant production.

effects that might be responsible for luminescence via matrix.

6. include, consist of:

…include all areas of biochemistry and structural biology.

include solid H20 and CO2.

7. that, which:

Fish that live in caves show many adaptations to living in darkness.

which are then sent through an external circuit to do work.

that are not invariant but nevertheless are foreign to the infected organism.

8. represents, is:

25 mg of ketamine is

is a standard tool of the computational chemist.

9. infers, implies:

implies a constant front profile as well as a constant velocity.

implying that climate-envelope models are more precise than they actually are.

10. can, may:

It may appear that….

may be at risk of extinction from climate change.

摘编自《科技写作与交流》(任胜利 . 科学出版社, 2012年出版)



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