任胜利的编辑之家分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/rensl Email: silei10@sina.com

博文

科技写作漫谈 (59):创建阅读动力

已有 5336 次阅读 2009-12-13 10:24 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:科研笔记

阅读的动力是一种推动力,能迫使读者为了接近作者在前句中设置的期望而进行阅读。句子开头的词语能够对读者产生最有力的影响。例如:单词although引导的从句通常是给读者建立一个期望,主句则将会削弱从句的语气;将because置于句首则表明主句包含了结果。

推动读者前进的方法有多种,每种方法都有它自己的风格和提出的期望。要决定哪种方法是最好的,就要明确这个句子是如何很好地推动行进或设置期望的,关键是作者的观点如何很好地被读者所理解以及这个阅读的历程是如何的快速和愉悦。

文字通常是朴素平实的,一如果给它加上格式(粗体,斜体,下划线)时,文字就变得丰富了。文字也可以是一个画面,这个画面从段落中脱颖而出,它有自己的标题,而且可以被做注解。

       比较以下各句:

    (1)  In science, because intellectual honesty and the need for precision encourage the writer to use detailed qualifiers as well as conditional provisos and modified nouns, sentences tend to be long.

   (2) In science, sentences tend to be long because intellectual honesty and the need for precision encourage the writer to use detailed qualifiers as well as conditional provisos and modified nouns.

(3) In science, precision requires modified keywords, and intellectual honesty demands detailed qualifiers and provisos; as a result, sentences tend to be long.

(4) In science, sentences are usually made long by the need for precision (long modified nouns) and intellectual honesty (detailed qualifiers, caveats, and provisos).

   不同的句式创建了读者对后续内容的三种不同的预期:(1)和(3)强调sentences tend to be long这一主题,(2)强调是什么使sentences tend to be long,(4)则强调precisionhonesty的论点。

       其结果是重点的改变:句(1)强调long,而句(2)却强调是什么创造了long(如果接下来的句子阐述long的原因,那么句(2)要比句(1)好)。与通常简单句中只有一个主题、一个动词和一个重点相反,句(3)有3个主题(precision”, “intellectual honesty”, “sentences”)3个动词和3个重点。句(4)是被动语态。它的表达比(1), (2)(3)都要差吗?让推动力做你的向导吧。

       在倒数时,通常是要强调多个主题和(或)重点,在倒数到0之前,读者一直保持警醒并向前行进。例如:

(5) In science, two factors contribute to long sentences: precision requires modified nouns, and intellectual honesty demands detailed qualifiers and provisos.

    好奇的读者被一个故事迷住了:

(6) We were curious to find out what makes scientific sentences longer than the average book sentence. We found that the need for precision in scientific words often leads to the use of elongated modified nouns. We also discovered that, because of their intellectual honesty, scientists tend to pad their sentences with detailed qualifiers and provisos.

一个问句比一个陈述句更加有力:

(7) Does writing with intellectual honesty make reading difficult? It may. To be accurate, scientists tend to pad their sentences with detailed qualifiers, provisos, and packed modified nouns. Unpacking nouns, and constantly reshaping the mental image as qualifying details and provisos are added, makes reading slow and difficult.

一个引出例证的单词或短语与冒号具有同样的吸引力:

       (8) Intellectual honesty leads to lengthy sentences padded with detailed qualifiers such as limits or boundary conditions, and provisos such as “if” or “provided” statements. Precision has the same lengthening effect: modified nouns (nouns preceded by other nouns that modify or specify their meaning) can be two to eight words long.

摘编自《科技英语写作进阶》(任胜利, 莫京, 安瑞 . 科学出版社, 2009年出版)



论文写作
http://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-38899-278222.html

上一篇:科技写作漫谈 (58):设定读者的期望
下一篇:科技写作漫谈 (60):控制阅读能量的消耗

1 余世锋

发表评论 评论 (2 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2021-10-17 06:10

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部