博雅达观分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/hillside 思接地质年代,眼扫地球内外 …… 跋涉于水文水资源、地理科学、土地利用与规划、科学思辨、中外哲学

博文

1915年旧金山除世博会之外还有“国际工程大会”(并非“万国水利大会”)——张謇未参加。夏偕复公使参加了?

已有 1428 次阅读 2020-7-4 21:32 |个人分类:社会观察|系统分类:人物纪事

           ——1915年的所谓旧金山“万国水利大会”,实为“国际工程大会”

           ——1915年巴拿马-太平洋世博会“中国日”故事是否符合史实?  

   期刊文章《中国参展1915年“巴拿马万国博览会”》称:“由于中国的杰出表现,博览会组委会决定将9月23日设为‘中国日‘。陈琪原希望把‘中国日‘定在10月10日国庆那天,9月15 日,中国驻美公使夏偕复借参加万国水利大会之机来到旧金山,顺便参观了中国馆。因为公使定在9月24日离开,陈琪就把原定的‘中国日‘提前到了9月23日。”

   《北京日报》(2008年10月07日)的一则报道《 史海:亮宝旧金山,中国首次组团参加世博会纪实》中介绍:http://www.chinanews.com/gj/kong/news/2008/10-07/1402866.shtml):“由于中国的杰出表现,赛会组委会决定将(1915年)9月23日设为“中国日”——陈琪原希望把‘中国日‘定在10月10日国庆那天的,是中国驻美公使夏偕复的突然到来打乱了他的计划。9月15日,夏偕复借参加万国水利大会之机来到旧金山,顺便参观了中国馆。因为公使定在9月24日离开,很会做人的陈琪就把原定的‘中国日‘提前到了9月23日。那一天,夏偕复仔仔细细参观了各个展馆的中国展品后,在政府馆院内亲手种下了一棵小树——种树的主意是陈琪出的,取其“新造之中国如园中树木初茁新芽,得此良机借资培养则发荣滋长”之意。说来令人难以置信,中国代表团获得如此佳绩,身为公使的夏偕复却只是顺路参观一下,并未专程来过。也不要说公使,就连中国驻旧金山总领事徐善庆都没有在会场内出现过——与美国人的热情相比,同胞们的冷漠让人心寒。直到参观完后,夏偕复拉着陈琪说出了一句话,才使他恍然大悟——到了会场,我方知国内对你的种种传言,并不可信。”

  上述消息中所说的“万国水利大会”,经过多日查证,字面名称的会议并不存在,真实准确的名称是“国际工程大会”(International Engineering Conference)。 这一段故事也有玄机:夏偕复主要是参加工程大会,会期是20-25日,他如何分身参加这两个同在旧金山的重大活动?两个会议场馆之间的交通怎么样?24号只去参加万国水利大会闭幕式,此前的开幕式不参加?这与他的主要目的“参加万国水利大会”又对不上号了。这次大会,有无会议代表名单?

  区区5天的正经八百公事——国际工程大会(“万国水利大会”),为何夏偕复可能只参加一天多?现有文献或故事里关于1915年世博会“中国日”的故事是否违背史实?

  关于张謇先生与这个万国水利大会的联系,本人博文《〈张謇全集〉中“自请列席(1915年9月)美国万国水利大会” 的会议信息查考》已有一些介绍(http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=350729&do=blog&id=1240196)。

  水利专家张保祥先生协助查找了1915年旧金山国际工程大会的有关图片与信息,在此也表示感谢。

附:1915年旧金山国际工程大会的有关图片

27917651561420135.jpg

753899335326848123.jpg

附2:https://ininet.org/the-1915-panama-pacific-international-exposition-in-san-franci.html#Figure_1._Table_of_Contents_for_the_Two_Volumes:_Transactions_of_the_International_Engineering_Congress,_September_20-25,_1915_in_San_Francisco,_Neal_Publishing,_San_Francisco,_1916

The 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco and Panama Canal Model, Conference and Proceedings

Jerry R. Rogers, Ph.D., P.E., D.WRE, Distinguished M. ASCE,

12127 Old Oaks Drive, Houston, TX 77024 (rogers.jerry@att.net) and

Luis D. Alfaro, Ph.D., Vice- President, Division of Engineering, Panama Canal Authority, Panama City, Panama (LAlfaro@pancanal.com)


ABSTRACT

The Panama–Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) was a world's fair in San Francisco between February 20 and December 4, 1915 that attracted 18,876,438 attendees. Its purpose was to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal, and it was an opportunity to showcase the San Francisco recovery from the 1906 earthquake. Panama Canal papers were published in the Transactions of the International Engineering CongressSeptember 20-25, 1915. The canal transactions had two volumes by Neal Publishing of San Francisco in 1916: volume 1 presented papers 1-13, 527 pp. and volume 2 contained papers 14-25, 483 pp., totaling 1010 pp. All papers were by Panama Canal engineers, employees, or consultants. This paper summarizes several papers and covers highlights of the PPIE: Planning, Construction, Exhibits, Buildings, Landscaping, Commemorations, etc. Completed on time and on budget with large attendance, some people said the 1915 world’s fair was the most successful ever held.


INTRODUCTION
The world’s fair was constructed on a 635 acre (2.6 km2) site in San Francisco, along the northern shore now known as the Marina District. Taking twelve months to build, a main attraction at the exposition was a large scale, topographic model of the Panama Canal covering five acres (depicting 5,000 square miles of the canal). A moving platform (1,440 feet long for 1,200 people in 144 cars endlessly connected) with seats priced at 50 cents each carried people around the exhibit with each seat having a duplex telephone receiver to transmit Panama Canal information for the 23-minute ride. The miniature Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks worked with water flowing, and ships traveled back and forth, controlled by magnets. Among the official PPIE souvenirs sold were paperweights filled with soil from the Culebra (Gaillard) Cut, plaques made from cocobolo wood used for railroad ties across the Isthmus of Panama, and each with a souvenir letter from the Governor of the Canal Zone: G.W. Goethals, former Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
TRANSACTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS
Almost a thousand conventions and congresses met in San Francisco for the PPIE fair, including international engineering sessions September 20-25, 1915 by the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Institute of Mining Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. From the Panama Canal Commission Library, the following lists of papers in two volumes were published in 1916, totaling 1010 pages of Panama Canal details. Figure 1 shows the Table of Contents of the Panama Canal papers in the Transactions of the International Engineering CongressSeptember 20-25, 1915.
Paper No. 1: “INTRODUCTION” (pp. 1-30) and Paper No. 10: “THE DRY EXCAVATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL” (pp. 235- 286) were both presented in 1915 by Major General George W. Goethals, Member- ASCE, Governor of the Canal Zone, formerly Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, Panama. Also likely presented was Paper No. 11: “CONSTRUCTION OF GATUN LOCKS, DAM AND SPILLWAYS” (pp. 287- 424) by Brig. General William Luther Sibert, U.S. Army, Member-ASCE, former Member Isthmian Canal Commission and Division Engineer, Atlantic Division, re-located in San Francisco.
In volume 2, Paper No. 19: “HYDRAULICS OF THE LOCKS OF THE PANAMA CANAL” pp. 165-234) was presented in October 1915 by Richard H. Whitehead, Associate Member-ASCE, Assistant Superintendent Pacific Locks, Panama Canal. No other papers in the Transactions were specifically noted as being presented at the 1915 San Francisco Conference, but several may have been. (On p. 167, Richard H. Whitehead, still living, made Congressional Record remarks on March 31, 1954 at the dedication of the Goethals Memorial at Balboa, Canal Zone.)
As a side note, in the first chapter of “The Battleship and the Canal,” Lipsky noted that the USS Oregon, built in San Francisco, was ordered from the West Coast to Cuba early in the Spanish American War in 1898 (Lipsky, 2005). The battleship took 67 days to travel around the tip of South America. For military strategic reasons to move ships more quickly, the U.S. supported the construction of the Panama Canal. After Panama Canal completion, the canal trip took only 1-2 days. The USS Oregon and the Pacific Fleet steamed into San Francisco Bay during the 1915 PPIE.
GOETHALS 1915 “INTRODUCTION” IN THE TRANSACTIONS
In Paper No. 1: “INTRODUCTION” in volume 1, George W. Goethals provided a detailed early history of Isthmian Canal plans, surveys, studies, etc., by people and engineers from Spain, England, France, Netherlands, the United States, Central America, and other countries. Most of these early studies were favorable in recommending a canal via Panama or Nicaragua and some included some preliminary cost estimates. Goethals gave early credit to the Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who, accompanied by engineer Alvaro de Saavedra Ceron, discovered the Pacific Ocean on September 25, 1513. Goethals noted: “Saavedra…prepared plans for a canal to be built along the route which he followed with Balboa in 1513. Death overtook Saavedra as he was about to lay his plans before the King of Spain.”


figure 1a1.tif

figure 1b1.tif

Figure 1. Table of Contents for the Two Volumes: Transactions of the International Engineering Congress, September 20-25, 1915 in San Francisco, Neal Publishing, San Francisco, 1916

附3:https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6660869

         The International engineering congress, San Francisco, 1915

Abstract:Plans are already well under way for one or more special trains from the East to San Francisco in connection with the International Electrical Congress to be held in that city in September, 1915. The trains themselves will represent the last word in safety and comfort, while their itineraries will be laid outto include the finest scenery in the country.

Published in: Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers ( Volume: 33 , Issue: 2 , Feb. 1914 )




http://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-350729-1240618.html

上一篇:河海工程专门学校“设校旨趣”的作者身份分歧——创始人张謇还是首任校长许肇南抑或集体创作?
下一篇:中文“水土保持”出处——水土保持文献公认的的1940年还是其他著作所说的1934年、1935年?

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-8-14 02:02

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部