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[转载]中世纪伊斯兰产生了一些史上最伟大的医学思想家

已有 1127 次阅读 2020-2-28 12:41 |系统分类:科研笔记|文章来源:转载

公元900年后伊斯兰医学向科学发展。


中世纪伊斯兰产生了一些史上最伟大的医学思想家,他们同时在外科学取得了进展,建立了医院。

中世纪伊斯兰医学古希腊、罗马、和埃及一样,广泛使用自然物质,很多是植物药份

世纪 al-Jahiz 提出 '生存竞争'/"struggle for existence",  Kitab al-Hayawan (Book of Animals), written in the 9thcentury.

在心血管系统Ibn al-Nafis in his Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna'sCanon   首先提出心室间并无血液相通,他正确地提出所有的血液离开肺后到左心室,并提出肺动脉和肺静脉之间有小的通道肺循环small communications, or pores)

在神经系统,Rhazes 提出神经有运动感官功能,描述了7对颅神经和31 对脊神经。他对从视神经到舌下神经进行了编号。他把脊神经分为8对颈神经、12对胸神经、5对腰神经3对骶神经、和3对尾神经他把人体的临床表现与神经系统损伤的部位进行了关联。

Rhazes 通过仔细观察区分了天花和麻疹 smallpox and measles

在卫生方面,Rhazes 提出在巴格达建立一个新的医院,选择地址在肉腐烂最慢的地方。

专门的医院和药房


Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdullah ibn-Sina (c. 980 -1037),

Ibn Sina, more commonly known in west as Avicenna

10th/ 11th世纪医生称为 早期现代医学之父。空气传播疾病,一些精神病,提出用产嵌助产,区分周围性面瘫和中枢性面瘫,三叉神经痛。

写有 The Canon of Medicine (The Law of Medicine) consists of a 5-volume encyclopedia (5卷医学百科全书)It was originally written in Arabic and later translated into several languages, including English, French and German. It is considered one of the most famous and influential books in the history of medicine.

被认为是医学史上最重要和最有影响力的著作之一

The Canon mentions how new medicines should be tested, below are quotations which have been adapted to modern English:

关于新药的验证的要求

The active ingredient must be pure, free from any accidental extraneous quality

药物必须是纯的,没有偶然的额外杂质

The drug must be used on just one simple disease, not a cluster of diseases

药物必须针对一种疾病进行试验 (而不是同时几种疾病)

Test the medication on two contrary types of diseases. Sometimesthe essential qualities of a drug may treat one disease effectively, while curing another by accident

在两种相反的疾病上试验药物 (排除偶然治愈的可能性)

A medication's quality must match the severity of the disease. The heat of one drug may be less than the coldness of a disease, rendering it ineffective

药物的量与疾病的严重程度相匹配。

The whole process must be timed carefully, so that the drug's action is clearly noted, rather than any otherconfounding factor

整个时间过程必须仔细记录,以看到明确的药物作用,而不是其他混杂因素。

The medication's efficacy must be consistent, with similar results after experimenting with many patients. Otherwise, the trial can't tell whether accidental effects were in play

药物作用在多个病人的治疗中效果要一致,否则难以明确偶然因素的作用。

Testing must be done on humans, not animals. Testing on a horse or a lion does not prove it will work on humans

动物身上有效果的不一定在人身上有效果。




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