武夷山分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Wuyishan 中国科学技术发展战略研究院研究员;南京大学信息管理系博导

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林林总总的世界观 精选

已有 5640 次阅读 2016-6-12 06:12 |个人分类:阅读笔记|系统分类:观点评述

林林总总的世界观

武夷山

   荷兰女学者AnnickDe Witt与其他学者在EnvironmentalScience & Policy(环境科学与政策)杂志2016年9月号(线上先行出版)发表合著文章,A new tool to map the majorworldviews in the Netherlands and USA, and explore how they relate to climatechange,原文见http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901116301794。文中用一个表格概括了各种世界观:

Table 1.

The IWF ideal-typically delineatestraditional, modern, postmodern, and integrative worldviews in the contemporaryWest, using the five worldview-aspects as organizing scheme (De Witt andHedlund, in press; Hedlund-de Witt, 2013a).

Traditional   worldview

传统世界观

Modern worldview

现代世界观

Postmodern   worldview

后现代世界观

Integrative   worldview

综合性世界观

Ontology本体论

Religious/metaphysical  monism

宗教的/形而上的一神论.

Reality as singular,  transcendent

将现实看作“单数的”、超越的.

Universe as purposively constructed whole

将宇宙看作有目的地构建的整体. 上帝无中生有地创造了宇宙God-created  universe ex nihilo.
 Transcendent God/Creator is separate from profane world; dualism

超越的上帝/造物主与世俗世界是分离的.

Nature as embodiment of  meaningful, imposed order (e.g. God’s creation)

大自然是有意义的、外部强加的秩序之体现(例如,上帝的创造).

Secular materialism.

世俗物质主义


Reality as singular,  immanent.

将现实看作“单数的”、天生的

 Mechanistic universe brought about by random selection.

随机选择带来的机械宇宙
 Material reality devoid of meaning, intentionality,

consciousness; dualism, disenchantment

没有意义、没有意向性的物质现实意识;

二元论;

去魅
 .

Nature as instrumental,  devoid of intrinsic meaning and purpose. Resource for exploitation.

大自然是工具性的,没有内在意义,没有目的

Post-materialism.

后物质主义

Reality as pluralistic,  perspectival, constructed.

将现实看作多元的、“透视的”、构建出来的
 Multiple cosmogonies/cosmogony as social construct

将多重宇宙产生看作社会构建物
 Reality as discontinuous and fragmented, meaning as social construct;  anti-essentialism.

现实是不连续的、片段化的,其意义是社会构建的产物;

反本质主义

Nature as constructed  through a plurality of cultural values, meanings, and interests.

大自然是通过一系列文化价值观、意义和利益而构建出来的

Holism/integralism (unity in  diversity).

整体主义(多样性中的统一性)


Reality as transcendent and immanent.

将现实看作超越的、天生的

Universe as evolving, creative manifestation of Source/Spirit.

宇宙是源/精神之演化的、创造性的表现
 Outer and inner reality co-arising, interdependent;
 re-enchantment.

外部现实与内部现实共同产生、相互依赖;返魅

Nature as intrinsically  valuable. Frequently seen as divine force that humanity is part and  expression of.

大自然具有内在价值。时常将大自然看作一种神圣的力量,人类是该力量的一部分,也是该力量之表达

Epistemology

认识论

Naïve realism; emphasis on  concrete-literal interpretations of religious doctrine (literalism,  dogmatism)

幼稚的现实主义;强调对宗教信条之具体的-字面的解释(圣经神圣论、教条主义).
 Religious/conventional authority (scripture, divine revelation, tradition)

宗教的/传统的权威(圣典、神的启示、传统)
 Implicit methodology



隐含的方法论

Substantive rationality

实质理性

(Post-)positivism; emphasis  on reality as objectively knowable,
 (empiricism, reductionism, scientism).

(后)实证主义;强调现实是客观可知的(经验主义,还原论、科学主义)
 Secular authority (science, the state).

世俗权威(科学、国家)
 Quantitative methods; methodological monism.

定量方法;方法一元论

 Procedural rationality


程序理性

Social constructivism;  emphasis on reality as constructed (pluralism, relativism).

社会建构轮;

强调现实是构建的(多元论、相对主义)
 Internalization of authority (e.g. moral, emotional, intuitive, artistic  knowing)

权威的内部化(如道德认知、情感认知、直觉认知和艺术认知)
 Qualitative methods; methodological pluralism


质性方法;方法多元论
 Skeptical rationality?




质疑性理性?

Critical realism,  pragmatism; emphasis on reality as approachable through integration of  sources of knowledge

批判现实主义、实用主义;强调通过知识源泉之整合是可以逼近现实的
 Triangulation of authority (scientific, spiritual/religious/philosophical,  and subjective knowing)

权威的三角互证(科学的;精神的/宗教的/哲学的;主观认知的)
 Mixed methods; integrative pluralism

合方法;综合多元论


rationality?

综合性理性?

Axiology    价值论

Traditional values (e.g.  security, tradition, conformity, obedience, humility)

传统价值观(如安全、传统、遵从、顺从、谦卑)



Emphasis on community,  family

强调社区、家庭

Pre-conventional morality?

前传统的道德观?

Rational-secular,  materialist values (e.g. power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation)

理性-世俗的、物质主义的价值观(例如,权力、成就、享乐主义、刺激)
 Emphasis on independent individuality



强调独立的个体性
 Conventional morality?



传统的道德观?

Self-expression,  post-materialist values (e.g. openness to change, self-direction)

自我表达的、后物质主义的价值观(如,对变革的开放心态、自我导向)

Emphasis on unique  individuality

强调独特的个体性

Postconventional morality?

后传统的道德观?

Self-expression/self-transcendence  values (e.g. universalism, self-actualization)?

自我表达/自我超越的价值观(例如,普遍主义、自我实现)

Emphasis on embedded,  relational individuality

强调内嵌的、关系性的个体性
 Universal morality?

统一的道德观?

Anthropology

人类学

Humanity in managerial  stewardship role vis-à-vis nature

人类对于自然是经营管理者的角色
 Prime purposes determined by larger order and social roles.


基本目标是由更大的秩序和社会角色所决定的Human being as sinful/fallen  from grace. Dependent on religious/metaphysical authorities for salvation.


人是有原罪的,是神恩所放弃的,其拯救取决于宗教的/形而上的权威
 Ethnocentric identity?

人类中心的认同?

Humanity in promethean  control over nature

人类以普罗米修斯方式控制自然

Prime purposes of a  material, hedonistic nature.

基本目标是物质主义、享乐主义的。

Human being as self-optimizing,  independent being.Homo economicus.

人是自我优化的、独立的经济人

Sociocentric identity?

社会中心的认同?

Humanity in cautious  relationship to nature


人类小心翼翼地处理与自然的关系

Prime purposes are found  within, intrinsic.

基本目标是在内部发现的,内在的

Human being as self-expressing,  unique individual.

人是自我表达的、独特的个体



Worldcentric identity?

世界中心的认同?

Humanity in unity and  synergy with nature

天人合一,人与自然的协同效应

Prime purposes found within,  serving the larger whole (‘service through self-actualization’).

基本目标是在内部发现的,服务于更大的整体(通过自我实现提供服务)

Human being as evolutionary  co-creator, with a vast—though generally unrealized—potential.

人是进化中的共同创造者,具有尚未实现的巨大潜力

Planetcentric identity?

以地球为中心的认同?

Societal vision

社会愿景

Traditional societies,  emphasis on (subsistence) farming.

传统社会,强调(维生的)农业
 Traditional and religious authorities and values as source of solutions to  societal and environmental problems.

社会与环境问题之解决,诉诸传统的与宗教的权威和价值观

Industrial societies,  emphasis on mechanized modes of production (e.g. industrial/conventional  agriculture).



工业社会,强调机械化生产方式
 Technological optimism: science and technology as solutions to societal and  environmental problems.

技术乐观主义:社会与环境问题靠科学技术解决

Post-industrial societies,  emphasis on service economy and creative industries.

后工业社会,强调服务经济和创意产业
 Scepticism of status quo, idealism: mobilization of the public through  revealing injustices as prime solution to societal and environmental  problems.

怀疑现状、理想主义:为解决社会与环境问题,要向公众揭露社会不公以动员其付出努力

Increasing emphasis on  services, creative industries, and social/sustainable entrepreneurship.

日益强调服务业、创意产业和社会性的/可持续的创业活动
 Integrative vision: emancipation of the public through consciousness growth  and a synthesis of interests and perspectives as solutions to societal and  environmental problems

综合愿景:通过意识成长和利益与视角之综合来解放公众,从而解决社会与环境问题


   博主:有些人自己的世界观已经十分落伍,却还侈谈“树立正确的世界观”,岂不谬矣!




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