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[转载]【无人机】【2019.08】自主式无人机与环境物理交互的设计

已有 219 次阅读 2020-11-25 17:13 |系统分类:科研笔记|文章来源:转载


本文为美国普渡大学(作者:Daniel R. McArthur)的博士论文,共135页。

 

无人机(UAV)与机载摄像机配合使用,已被证明在许多应用中是有用的工具,包括航空摄影、精确农业和搜索救援行动。同样,能够与环境进行物理交互的无人机已经显示出巨大的潜力,可以帮助人们更安全、更高效地执行危险或耗时的任务。然而,由于机载计算和电池寿命的限制以及复杂的飞行动力学,使用无人机与环境进行物理交互仍然是一个发展中的研究领域。考虑到这些局限性,本研究的主要目标是:

1)开发一种新的无人机空中操纵平台;

2)为该平台开发模块化的硬件和软件,使特定任务能够自主执行;

3)开发一种视觉目标跟踪方法,以实现非结构化、真实世界环境中自主空中操纵的鲁棒任务。

 

为此,本文提出了一种新的空中操纵平台——交互式吊杆直升机无人机(I-BC)的设计I-BC具有一个简单的三翼机框架、一个用于产生水平力的附加执行器以及轻型、模块化的末端执行器,I-BC旨在平衡执行空中操纵任务的效率和功能,能够执行各种任务,例如在难以触及的地方安装传感器来打开小门或面板。机载摄像机、力和距离传感器以及强大的单板计算机(SBC)使I-BC能够在非结构化环境中自主运行,在大型基础设施检查、工业检查和维护以及核污染净化等领域具有潜在的应用前景。

 

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), when paired with an onboard camera, have proven to be useful tools in many applications, including aerial photography, precision agriculture, and search and rescue operations. Likewise, UAVs capable of physically interacting with the environment have shown great potential to help people perform dangerous, or timeconsuming tasks more safely and efficiently than they could on their own. However, due to onboard computation and battery life limitations and complex flight dynamics, using UAVs to physically interact with the environment is still a developing area of research. Considering these limitations, the primary goals of this work are to (1) develop a new UAV platform for aerial manipulation, (2) develop modular hardware and software for the platform to enable specific tasks to be performed autonomously, and (3) develop a visual target tracking method to enable robust performance of autonomous aerial manipulation tasks in unstructured, real-world environments. To that end, the design of the Interacting-BoomCopter UAV (I-BC) is presented here as a new platform for aerial manipulation. With a simple tricopter frame, a single additional actuator for generating horizontal forces, and lightweight, modular end-effectors, the I-BC aims to balance efficiency and functionality in performing aerial manipulation tasks, and is able to perform various tasks such as mounting sensors in hard-to-reach places, and opening small doors or panels. An onboard camera, force and distance sensors, and a powerful single board computer (SBC) enable the I-BC to operate autonomously in unstructured environments, with potential applications in areas such as large-scale infrastructure inspection, industrial inspection and maintenance, and nuclear decontamination efforts.

 

1.  引言

2.  飞行器设计与原型

3.  遥感器安装任务

4.  开门操纵任务

5.  非结构化环境下的高级自治操作

6.  结论


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