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遥感GIS文献阅读提要

已有 787 次阅读 2020-9-29 16:15 |个人分类:论文推荐|系统分类:论文交流

1. Next generation of GIS: must be easy

下一代GIS:必须容易

To cite this article:

Zhu, A. X., Zhao, F. H., Liang, P., & Qin, C. Z. (2020). Next generation of GIS: must be easy. Annals of GIS, 1-16. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1766563

 

摘要

现有的GIS软件主要面向专业用户,并且没有充分集成资源以进行有效计算。对于非专业用户而言,这些系统通常难以用于完成复杂的地理分析。为了解决这些问题,下一代GIS软件必须容易容易是指着易于使用易于计算易于使用意味着软件系统应该是面向目标的,而不是当前的面向过程主义;面向目标的系统致力于减轻用户(尤其是新用户)的负担,用户不必知道确切的命令及执行顺序,即可实现他们想要的目标。易于计算要求使用GIS实现复杂地理分析的过程,应该是基于高性能计算基础架构的。本文通过两个案例研究(数字土壤制图和数字地形分析),诠释了容易的含义。我们相信,未来的下一代GIS平台应该是目标驱动的、智能的、可实现高性能计算的、易于访问的且可参与的。它将使得任何人随时随地参与地理分析成为可能。

关键词:

下一代GIS,地理计算平台,必须容易,高性能计算,智能数字土壤制图,高效数字地形分析

 

ABSTRACT

Existing GIS software mainly target at expert users and do not sufficiently integrate resources for efficient computing. They are difficult for non-experts to use and are often slow in completing the complicated geographic analysis. To address these problems, future generation of GIS software must be ‘easy’. By ‘easy’ we mean ‘easy to use’ and ‘easy to compute’. ‘Easy to use’ means that software system should be goal-oriented, rather than the currently procedure-oriented doctrine. The goal-oriented will relieve users, particularly novice users, the burden of knowing the exact commands and their sequences to perform for achieving the goal they want to achieve. ‘Easy to compute’ means that implementation of GIS analytical functionality should be able to utilize the high-performance computing infrastructures for complicated geographic analysis. Two case studies, one in digital soil mapping and the other in digital terrain analysis, are presented to illustrate the meaning of ‘easy’. We believe that the future generations of GIS platforms should be goal-driven, intelligent, high-performance computing enabled, easily accessible, and participatory. It allows anyone to participate in geo-computation at anywhere and anytime.

 

 

2. BIM/GIS integration for Web GIS-based bridge management

面向基于Web GIS桥梁管理的BIM/GIS集成

To cite this article:

Junxiang Zhu, Yi Tan, Xiangyu Wang & Peng Wu (2020): BIM/GIS integration for web GIS-based bridge management, Annals of GIS, DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1743355

 

摘要

建筑信息模型(BIM)和地理信息系统(GIS)的集成有益于建筑、工程和建筑/设施管理(AEC/FM)领域以及地理空间行业。对于GISBIM是获取三维(3D)建筑信息的希望之源,可用于研究智慧城市、绿色建筑、大数据等领域。从行业基础分类(IFC)到shapefile的基础数据转换,可以为GIS提供丰富的建筑信息。但是,由于IFCshapefile使用的建模方法不同,实施这种转换很困难。IFC通常使用边界表达(Brep)、扫掠实体、构造实体几何(CSG)、剪切和映射表达来构建3D对象,而shapefile仅使用Brep。此外,使用不同的坐标系也会导致几何变换问题。在IFC使用的所有实体建模方法中,最常用的是Brep和扫掠实体。与Brep相比,由于必须正确解释和转换在IFC中定义的每种扫掠实体的轮廓,扫掠实体的转换更具挑战性。本文开发了用于解释IFC转换为shapefile时常用扫掠轮廓的算法。使用桥梁模型来验证所提出的方法,并开发了基于Web GIS的桥梁管理系统以阐明转换后shapefile模型的可能用法。

 

ABSTRACT

 

Integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) can benefit both the Architecture, Engineering and Construction/Facility Management (AEC/FM) domain, and the geospatial industry. For GIS, BIM is a promising source of three-dimensional (3D) building information that can be used in the study of smart city, green building, big data, etc. The underlying data transformation from Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to shapefile enables GIS to use the rich building information. However, this transformation is difficult due to the different modelling methods used by IFC and shapefile. IFC generally represents 3D objects using boundary representation (Brep), swept solid, constructive solid geometry (CSG), clipping and mapped representation, while shapefile only uses Brep. In addition, the use of different coordinate systems also contributes to the geometry transformation issue. Among all the solid modelling methods used by IFC, Brep and swept solid are the most often used two methods. Compared with Brep, the transformation of swept solid is more challenging as each type of profile for swept solid defined in IFC has to be properly interpreted and converted. This paper develops algorithms to interpret the commonly used profiles of swept solid for the transformation of IFC into shapefile. A bridge model is used to validate the proposed method, and a Web GIS-based bridge management system is developed to demonstrate a possible usage of the transformed shapefile model.



3.Analytical study on the relationship between land surface temperature and land use/land cover indices

地表温度与土地利用/土地覆盖指数之间关系的分析研究

To cite this article:

Subhanil Guha, Himanshu Govil, Neetu Gill & Anindita Dey (2020): Analytical study on the relationship between land surface temperature and land use/land cover indices, Annals of GIS, DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1754291

摘要

本研究关注于印度赖布尔市的地表温度(LST)估算,着重分析了城市边界内的城市热岛(UHI)和非城市热岛区域,及其与归一化差异植被指数、归一化差异水体指数、归一化建筑指数和归一化多波段干旱指数的关系。整个研究是基于同年的前季风期、季风期、后季风期和冬季四个不同季节的多时相Landsat 8陆地成像仪和热红外传感器图像进行的。城市热岛主要沿城市的北部和南部边缘发展。在普通热岛中,四个不同季节的地表温度在25.72℃35.69℃之间变化。结果表明,在季风期图像和后季风期图像中,地表温度与土地利用/土地覆盖指数的相关性最强,而冬季和前季风期图像的相关性相对较弱。

 

ABSTRACT

The present study focuses on the estimating land surface temperature (LST) of Raipur City in India emphasizing the urban heat island (UHI) and non-UHI inside the city boundary and their relationship with normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, normalized difference built-up index, and normalized multi-band drought index. The entire study has been performed on four multi-date Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor images taken from four different seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter in the same year. The UHI has mainly been developed along the northern and southern periphery of the city. The range of LST in the common UHI for four different seasons varies between 25.72° C and 35.69° C. The results present the strongest correlation between LST and the land use/land cover indices in monsoon and post-monsoon images while winter and pre-monsoon images show a comparatively weak correlation.

 

4. Why public health needs GIS: a methodological overview

为什么公共卫生需要GIS:一个关于方法的概述

To cite this article:

Fahui Wang (2019): Why public health needs GIS: a methodological overview, Annals of GIS, 26(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2019.1702099.

 

摘要

本文介绍了在地理信息系统(GIS)的视角下,地理问题是如何与公共卫生研究和政策日益相关的。它涵盖六个主题,并重点关注方法论相关的问题:(1)我们与健康相关的行为因地域而异,公共卫生政策也应如此。(2)卫生保健市场中的设施(供应)和患者(需求)在地缘政治边界上相互影响,因此需要能够衡量卫生保健可达性的方法。(3)我们的健康状况是个体属性和邻域特征共同作用的结果,因此对邻域的充分定义对于评估邻域效应至关重要。(4)人口稀少地区的疾病发生率并不可靠,解决这一问题的一种有效方法是构造一个更大的内部同质且具有可比性的区域单位。(5)为医疗保健市场定义科学的地理单位对于研究人员、从业人员和决策者评估医疗保健资源的供给至关重要,而GIS使我们能够自动、高效、更好地定义地理单位(例如,初级保健服务区,医院服务区和癌症服务区域)。(6)除了围绕效率的各种优化目标外,规划医疗资源的位置以实现医疗服务的平等分配也同样重要。本文通过案例研究对每个主题进行了说明。

 

关键词

公共卫生,卫生保健可达性,邻域效应,区域化方法,医院服务区域,位置分配优化

 

ABSTRACT

The short paper provides an overview on how geographic issues have become increasingly relevant to public health research and policy, particularly through the lens of geographic information systems (GIS). It covers six themes with an emphasis on methodological issues. (1) Our health-related behaviour varies across geographic settings, so should public health policy. (2) Facilities (supply) and patients (demand) in a health-care market interact with each other across geopolitical borders, and measures of health-care accessibility need to capture that. (3) Our health outcome is the result of joint effects of individual attributes and neighbourhood characteristics, and an adequate definition of neighbourhood is critical for assessing neighbourhood effect. (4) Disease rates in areas of small population are unreliable, and one effective way to mitigate the problem is to construct a larger, internally homogenous and comparable area unit. (5) Defining a scientific geographic unit for health-care market is critical for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to evaluate health-care delivery, and GIS enables us to define the unit (e.g. primary care service areas, hospital service areas, and cancer service areas) automatically, efficiently and optimally. (6) Aside from various optimization objectives around ‘efficiency’, it is as important to plan the location and allocation of health-care resources towards maximum equality in health-care access. Case studies are cited to illustrate each theme.

 

5. Multi-factor of path planning based on an ant colony optimization algorithm

基于蚁群优化算法的多因素路径规划

To cite this article:

Mingchang Wang , Chunyu Zhu , Fengyan Wang , Tingting Li & Xinyue Zhang. (2020). Multi-factor of path planning based on an ant colony optimization algorithm. Annals of GIS, 26(2), 101-112. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1755725

摘要

本文提出了一种改进的蚁群算法,能在复杂的静态环境中避开障碍,可以解决在路径规划中,传统蚁群算法存在的评价因素单一和路径质量较低的问题。改进措施是:1)根据模糊数学的综合评价方法和层次分析法构建一种模糊规划器,对环境因素的影响进行综合评价和确认;2)优化了蚁群算法的概率选择公式;3)优化了信息素更新公式,以及4)引入角系统机制作为路径优化的后处理方法,以进一步平滑路径。本文对传统蚁群算法的模拟实验结果进行了分析,并将其与改进后的蚁群算法进行了比较。结果表明,改进后的蚁群算法具有更强的路径规划能力和更高的算法效率,生成的路径更加平滑,受环境因素的负面影响更小。因此,所提算法有望为真实环境中有效的多因素路径规划提供一个计算基础,从而节省人力和物力。

关键词:

路径规划,蚁群算法,模糊数学综合评价法,层次分析法

 

ABSTRACT

We propose an improved ant colony algorithm for avoiding obstacles in complex static environments that addresses the problems of a single evaluation factor and low path quality of the traditional ant colony algorithm in path planning. The improvements are: 1) a fuzzy planner is constructed according to the comprehensive evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics and the analytic hierarchy process to comprehensively evaluate and determine the impact of environmental factors, 2) the probability selection formula of the ant colony algorithm is optimized, 3) the pheromone update formula is optimized, and 4) the corner system mechanism is introduced as a post-processing method of path optimization to further smooth the path. Results from simulation experiments of the traditional ant colony algorithm were analysed and compared with those of the improved ant colony algorithm, showing that the latter has a stronger path planning ability and higher algorithm efficiency, resulting in a smoother path with a lower negative impact by environmental factors. Thus, the proposed algorithm is expected to provide a computational basis for effective multi-factor path planning in realistic environments, thereby saving human and material resources.

 

6.Spatial modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility: a study from the southern Western Ghats region of Kerala, India.

浅层滑坡敏感性空间建模:来自印度喀拉拉邦西高止山脉南部地区的一项研究

To cite this article:

A. L. Achu, C. D. Aju & Rajesh Reghunath (2020). Spatial modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility: a study from the southern Western Ghats region of Kerala, India., Annals of GIS, 26(2), 113-131. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1758207

 

摘要

本研究旨在利用Dempster–Shafer、贝叶斯概率和Logistic回归方法,进行印度喀拉拉邦西高止山脉南部的滑坡敏感性制图。我们建立了包含82个滑坡点的清单数据库,并将其用于滑坡敏感性建模。从空间数据库中提取了岩性、地貌特征、坡角、土壤质地、至溪流的距离、至道路的距离、至轮廓线的距离、土地利用/土地覆盖、坡度曲率、降雨量、地形湿度指数和相对地势等12个用于建模的滑坡条件因子。测试了各自变量之间的多重共线性,并绘制了滑坡敏感性地图。通过敏感性、特异性、分类准确性、ROC-AUC、平方平均数误差(RMSE) kappa 指数对所建模型进行了验证。在验证阶段,贝叶斯概率模型的ROC-AUC0.833)、灵敏度(0.870)、特异性(0.800)和kappa指数(0.667)最高,RMSE0.4550)最低。此外,研究表明,在疏林结构性丘陵上的农业区10°–40°斜坡,极易发生滑坡,而且受至道路的距离、至溪流的距离和土壤质地的影响较大。该预测模型对西高止山南部的未来土地利用规划以减轻滑坡灾害风险,具有重要的指导意义。

关键词:

滑坡敏感性,地理信息系统,西高止山脉,喀拉拉邦,印度

 

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to produce the landslide susceptibility maps by using Dempster–Shafer, Bayesian probability and logistic regression methods for the southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. A landslide inventory database of 82 landslides is prepared and used for landslide susceptibility modelling. Twelve landslide conditioning factors including lithology, geomorphological features, slope angle, soil texture, distance from stream, distance from road, distance from lineaments, land use/land cover, slope curvature, rainfall, topographic wetness index and relative relief are extracted from the spatial database and used for modelling. Multi-collinearity among the independent variables were tested and landslide susceptibility maps are constructed. The constructed models were validated with sensitivity, specificity, classification accuracy, ROC-AUC, root mean square error (RMSE) and kappa index. The Bayesian probability model obtained highest ROC-AUC (0.833), sensitivity (0.870), specificity (0.800) and kappa index (0.667) with least RMSE (0.4550) in validation phase. In addition, the study reveals that the agricultural areas have 10°–40° slopes falling on the denudational structural hills are extremely susceptible to landslide occurrence with extended influence from distance from roads, distance from streams and soil texture. The predicted model is trustworthy for future land use planning in the southern Western Ghats to mitigate the risk from landslide hazard.

 

7. Integration of spatialization and individualization: the future of epidemic modelling for communicable diseases

空间化和个体化的整合:传染性疾病的流行病建模未来

To cite this article:

Meifang Li, Xun Shi & Xia Li (2020): Integration of spatialization and individualization: the future of epidemic modelling for communicable diseases, Annals of GIS.

DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1768438.

 

摘要

在过去的几十年中,传染病的流行病建模经历了一系列转变:从将研究区域作为一个整体到解决该区域内空间变化;从以人群为目标到结合亚人群分类特征并最终落到个人层面。这些转变首先是由于人们认识到常规流行病模型中对空间和人口的概括可能会降低模型的有效性;然后,可以描述流行病详细时空特征以及人类、自然方面环境特征的可用数据日益增多;最后,地理信息科学、数据科学、计算机科学和计算技术的发展为流行病建模提供了便利。通过回顾各种最新开发的传染病模型,我们明确了该领域的空间化和个性化概念,并指出两者的融合是传染病建模的未来。我们还指出,在这个领域中,基于对象概念化的模型擅长对时空过程进行建模,而基于场概念化的模型擅长空间信息表达。因此,我们提出了一种流行病模型的程序框架,该框架实现了个性化和空间化的整合,基于对象过程和基于场表达方式的整合,以及基于病人历史数据的传染关系追溯建模和未来流行病传染关系预测建模的整合。


关键词:

空间化,个性化,传染性疾病,空间流行病学,传染病建模

 

ABSTRACT

In the past several decades, epidemic modelling for communicable diseases has experienced transitions from treating the entire study area as a whole to addressing spatial variation within the area, and from targeting the entire population to incorporating characteristics of categorized subpopulations and finally going down to the individual level. These transitions have been first driven by the recognition that generalizations of space and population in conventional epidemic modelling may have hampered the effectiveness of the modelling; they then have been supported by increasingly available data that allow depiction of detailed spatiotemporal characteristics of an epidemic, as well as those characteristics of the environment in both human and natural aspects; and finally they have been facilitated by developments in geographic information science, data science, computer science, and computing technologies. Based on a review of a variety of recently developed communicable disease models, we explicitly put forward the notions of spatialization and individualization in this area, and point out that the integration of the two is the future of communicable disease modelling. We also point out that in this area models based on the object conceptualization are good at modelling spatiotemporal process, whereas models based on the field conceptualization are good at representing spatialized information. We propose a procedural framework of epidemic modelling that implements the integration of individualization and spatialization, integration of object-based process and field-based representation, and integration of modelling that retrospectively traces infection relationships based on historical patient data and modelling that prospectively predicts such relationships of future epidemics.

 

8. Modernization and female labour force participation in Oman: spatial modelling of local variations

阿曼的现代化与女性劳动参与:地方差异的空间建模

To cite this article:

 Shawky Mansour, Talal Al-Awadhi, Noura Al Nasiri & Ali Al Balushi (2020): Modernization and female labour force participation in Oman: spatial modelling of local variations, Annals of GIS, DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1768437.

 

摘要

不但在海湾合作委员会(GCC)的参与国之间,劳动力市场的结构和机制在地理位置上存在差异,在每个国家内部,劳动力参与程度也是具有空间差异性的。妇女就业的地方差异通常受多种驱动力,特别是现代化特征的影响。在这项研究中,使用先进的GIS算法对阿曼的女性劳动力参与(FLFP)进行建模。女性教育、城市化、私营部门工作、离婚率和女性行政工作等几个解释性变量被用来作为FLFP率的预测指标。通过拟合全局普通最小二乘(OLS)和局部地理加权回归(GWR)模型,实现在空间上调查和预测阿曼地区的FLFP率的分布模式。尽管全局模型能够比较好地拟合了女性就业数据,但是GWR模型的结果似乎在本质上更符合现实,因为它们允许各种参数对FLFP的影响随空间变化。这项研究的结果表明,教育和城市主义对女性劳动力参与的预测均具有显著的积极影响。局部空间建模与GIS技术的协同作用为提高阿曼妇女的就业状况提供了见解。量化FLFP率的空间差异及其关联有助于我们进一步了解造成现代化的驱动力,同时认识到影响女性参与地方劳动的因素。

关键词:

现代化,女性劳动力,地理信息系统,空间建模,阿曼

 

ABSTRACT

 

In spite of the fact that labour market structures and mechanisms vary geographically between countries from the same region as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, spatial variations of labour force participation can also be identified in every single country. Local variations in women’s employment are often influenced by several driving forces particularly modernization characteristics. In this research, advanced GIS algorithms were utilized to model female labour force participation (FLFP) in Oman. Several explanatory variables such as female education, urbanization, private sector jobs, divorce rates and female administrative jobs were used as predictors of FLFP rates. The global Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and local Geographically Weighted Regression models were fitted to spatially investigate and predict the distribution patterns of FLFP rates over the Omani wilayats. Although the global model fitted the female employment data moderately well, the findings of the GWR model seems inherently more realistic since they allow the impacts of various parameters on FLFP to vary spatially over space. The results of this study revealed that education and urbanism both have significant positive impacts on predictions for the labour force participation of women. The synergy of local spatial modelling with GIS techniques provides insights into improving women’s employment shares in Oman. Quantifying spatial variations of FLFP rates and their associations helps further our understanding of the driving forces which are responsible for modernization while at the same time recognizing the factors that increase or decrease women’s participation in the local labour.

 

9. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using modified SINTACS model in Wadi Shueib, Jordan

基于改进SINTACS模型的约旦Wadi Shueib地下水脆弱性评价

Muheeb Awawdeh, Noor Al-Kharbsheh, Mutawakil Obeidat & Mohsen Awawdeh

To cite this article:

 Muheeb Awawdeh, Noor Al-Kharbsheh, Mutawakil Obeidat & Mohsen Awawdeh. (2020). Groundwater vulnerability assessment using modified SINTACS model in Wadi Shueib, Jordan, Annals of GIS. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1773535.

 

摘要

水资源短缺是约旦面临的最严重的环境挑战。由于地下水大约提供了约旦中部Wadi Shueib地区总用水量的50%,因此地下水资源需要很好的保护和管理。本研究利用GIS技术,采用改进的SINTACS模型对Wadi ShueibAs-Salt 市南部的一个山谷)流域的内在脆弱性进行评估。模型的调查区域包括极高度潜在污染区域、高度潜在污染区域和中度潜在污染区域,各区域覆盖率分别小于1%26%51%。高潜在污染主要受以下参数的综合影响:非饱和带、含水层介质、水系密度和有效渗透。敏感性分析结果表明:水系密度对地下水脆弱性指数的计算具有重要意义。并将选定的井水和泉水中测量的硝酸盐浓度与模型进行了比较,以检验其可靠性。模型的验证率超过70%,说明该建模方法是可接受的。此外,土地利用和土地覆盖类别与脆弱性类别具有很好的匹配关系,可作为地下水脆弱性指标。即使在这种复杂的水文地质环境中,SINTACS方法也证明了其通用性。

关键词:

SINTACS,地下水,脆弱性,Wadi Shueib,地理信息系统

 

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity is the most serious environmental challenge that Jordan faces. Water resources require better protection and management as groundwater accounts for about 50% of the water usage in Wadi Shueib, central Jordan. Intrinsic vulnerability for Wadi Shueib (a valley located south of As-Salt city) watershed was assessed using modified SINTACS model using GIS techniques. According to our model, the investigated area encompassed very high, high and moderate areas of potential pollution with area coverage <1%, 26% and 51%, respectively. The high potential pollution is mainly influenced by combined contributions of parameters such as; unsaturated zone, aquifer media, lineaments density and effective infiltration.

Sensitivity analysis indicates that lineament density is significant for the calculation of the groundwater vulnerability index. Nitrate concentrations measured in selected wells and springs were compared with the model to inspect its reliability. The validation rate of our model reaches more than 70%, which is an indication of acceptable modelling approach. Moreover, there was a good match of vulnerability classes with land use land cover categories as indicators of groundwater vulnerability. The SINTACS method proved its versatility even in this complex hydrogeological environment.

 

10 3D spatial morphological analysis of mound tombs based on LiDAR data

基于LiDAR数据的土墩墓3D空间形态分析

To cite this article: 

Lin YANG, Yehua SHENG, Anping PEI & Yi WU. (2020). 3D spatial morphological analysis of mound tombs based on LiDAR data, Annals of GIS. DOI: 10.1080/19475683.2020.1780313.

 

摘要

商周时期流行于江南地区的土墩墓是我国的地区性文化遗存。为了对文物进行保护和科学分析,我们采用激光扫描技术对位于江苏省天王镇农林村的寨花头土墩墓群进行了研究。由于一个土墩内保存着多个墓葬,并具有典型的向心性结构。并且将地面激光扫描技术应用于野外土墩墓发掘,可以获得准确的坟墓激光雷达数据。因此,可以根据考古学规律和GIS空间数据处理方法,对墓葬进行空间形态分析。运用一墩多墓向心结构理论,我们提出了一种确定墓葬几何方向集中区域的算法,并将计算结果与发掘数据进行比较,验证了向心理论的科学性。此外,利用空间数据聚类分析方法,我们对墓葬的空间分布特征进行了分析和推断。我们提出并证明了这种墓葬制度是以家族聚集形式存在的,对地区性丧葬的研究具有一定的借鉴意义。实验数据表明,该方法作为一个新颖的例子,证实了空间分析能够促进更为精确的大规模野外考古发掘,并对研究各种类型的墓葬、遗迹和遗址具有重要意义。

关键词:

激光雷达数据,土墩墓,空间形态分析,向心性,三维考古模型

 

 

ABSTRACT

Mound tombs, popular in the south Yangzi River area in Shang and Zhou Dynasties, are regional cultural remains in China. With the aims of protecting and scientifically analysing cultural relics, laser scanning technology was adopted to study Zhaihuatou mound tombs located in Nonglin Village in Tianwang town, Jiangsu Province. Multiple tombs are held within one mound in good keep and with the typical construction of centripetalism. Accurate tomb LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data were acquired by applying terrestrial laser scanning technology to the field mound excavation. Subsequently, a spatial morphological analysis of the tombs was conducted on the basis of archaeological rules and GIS spatial data processing methods. Using the theory of centripetalism construction of multi-tomb-one-mounds, we proposed an algorithm to determine the concentrated area of the geometric directions of tombs, and centripetalism theory was scientifically validated in comparing results with the excavation data. Spatial data clustering methods were used to analyse and deduce the spatial distribution characteristics of the tombs. We propose and demonstrate that the burial system is in the form of family-clan aggregation, and is useful for developing research on regional burials. Experimental data show that the proposed method is a novel example of how spatial analysis can foster more precise field archaeological excavations on a large scale, and it is significant to study various types of tombs, relics and ruins.



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