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捕食的温度依赖性:随着气候变暖,捕食者的杀伤率和猎物消耗量增加
2020-11-27 21:53
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捕食的温度依赖性:随着气候变暖,捕食者的杀伤率和猎物消耗量增加

Temperature dependency of predation: Increased killing rates and prey mass consumption by predators with warming


Temperature dependency of consumer–resource interactions is fundamentally important for understanding and predicting the responses of food webs to climate change. Previous studies have shown temperature-driven shifts in herbivore consumption rates and resource preference, but these effects remain poorly understood for predatory arthropods. Here, we investigate how predator killing rates, prey mass consumption, and macronutrient intake respond to increased temperatures using a laboratory and a field reciprocal transplant experiment. Ectothermic predators, wolf spiders (Pardosa sp.), in the lab experiment, were exposed to increased temperatures and different prey macronutrient content (high lipid/low protein and low lipid/high protein) to assess changes in their killing rates and nutritional demands. Additionally, we investigate prey mass and lipid consumption by spiders under contrasting temperatures, along an elevation gradient. We used a field reciprocal transplant experiment between low (420 masl; 26°C) and high (2,100 masl; 15°C) elevations in the Ecuadorian Andes, using wild populations of two common orb-weaver spider species (Leucauge sp. and Cyclosa sp.) present along the elevation gradient. We found that killing rates of wolf spiders increased with warmer temperatures but were not significantly affected by prey macronutrient content, although spiders consumed significantly more lipids from lipid-rich prey. The field reciprocal transplant experiment showed no consistent predator responses to changes in temperature along the elevational gradient. Transplanting Cyclosa sp. spiders to low- or high-elevation sites did not affect their prey mass or lipid consumption rate, whereas Leucauge sp. individuals increased prey mass consumption when transplanted from the high to the low warm elevation. Our findings show that increases in temperature intensify predator killing rates, prey consumption, and lipid intake, but the responses to temperature vary between species, which may be a result of species-specific differences in their hunting behavior and sensitivity to temperature.

消费者-资源相互作用的温度依赖性对于理解和预测食物网对气候变化的反应至关重要。以前的研究已经表明,温度变化会驱动草食动物消费率和资源偏好的变化,但对于捕食性节肢动物来说,这些影响仍然知之甚少。在这里,我们通过独立的实验室实验和野外蜘蛛相互迁移实验,研究捕食者杀伤率(捕杀猎物率)、猎物质量消耗和大量营养素摄入量对温度升高的反应。在实验室实验中,将捕食性狼蛛暴露于不同温度和不同猎物常量营养素含量(高脂/低蛋白和低脂/高蛋白)中,以评估它们的杀伤率和营养需求的变化。此外,我们还研究了蜘蛛在不同海拔梯度、不同温度下对猎物质量和脂的肪消耗。我们使用了厄瓜多尔安第斯山脉低海拔(420 米;26°C)和高海拔(2,100 米;15°C)之间的野外相互移植实验,使用了两个常见的结网蜘蛛物种Leucauge sp.和Cyclosa sp.的野生种群,它们沿着海拔坡度都有分布。我们发现,狼蛛的杀伤率随着温度的升高而增加,但不受猎物中大量营养素含量的显著影响,尽管蜘蛛从富含脂肪的猎物中摄取的脂肪明显更多。野外相互移栽实验表明,捕食者对沿海拔梯度的温度变化没有一致的反应。蜘蛛迁移实验表明, 把Cyclosa sp.迁移到低海拔或高海拔地区的,蜘蛛对其猎物质量和猎物脂肪消耗率没有变化,但另一种蜘蛛Leucauge sp.,当个体从冷的高海拔地区迁移到温暖的低海拔地区时,个体会增加对猎物的捕食。我们的研究结果表明,温度升高会增加捕食者的杀伤率、猎物消耗量和脂肪摄入量,但不同物种对温度的反应不同,这可能是由于不同物种捕猎行为和对温度的敏感性不同所致。

masl   meters above the sea level. 海拔高程单位


Walker, R., Wilder, S.M., Gonzalez, A.L., 2020. Temperature dependency of predation: Increased killing rates and prey mass consumption by predators with warming. Ecology and evolution 10, 9696-9706.


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