栗茂腾
2019年和过去20年诺贝尔化学奖获奖者及其贡献 精选
2019-10-9 21:50
阅读:4158

上午还在调侃2019年诺贝尔化学奖会不会又颁给和生物相关的研究,呵呵!今日下午,2019年诺贝尔化学奖颁发给两位美国科学家和一位日本科学家,以表彰其在锂离子电池的发展方面作出的贡献。该奖基本和生物没有直接关系。

诺贝尔化学奖有人将其戏称诺贝尔“理综奖”,为什么会有此说法?过去20年诺贝尔化学奖多次授予传统化学之外的生物学研究,如2018年,诺贝尔化学获获奖内容分别是研究酶的定向进化("for the directed evolution of enzymes")和研究多肽和抗体的噬菌体展示技术(for the phage display of peptides and antibodies)而获奖;2017年,诺贝尔化学奖颁发给 “研发出冷冻电镜,用于溶液中生物分子结构的高分辨率测定”。冷冻电镜获奖被戏称为“一个发给物理学家的诺贝尔化学奖,奖励他们帮助了生物学家”。在如2015年“DNA修复机制”、2012年“G蛋白偶联受体研究”、2009年“核糖体结构和功能”、2006年“真核转录的分子基础”、2004年“泛素调节的蛋白质降解”、2003年“细胞膜通道”等。这也充分说明了“生物和化学不分家”、“生物的基础是化学”等。不难看出学科之间越来越难明确区分开来。本博文对近20年诺贝尔化学奖获得者及其贡献进行了描述,以便让朋友们更好了解近年来诺贝尔化学奖情况。

2019年,诺贝尔化学奖授予美国得州大学奥斯汀分校John B Goodenough教授、纽约州立大学宾汉姆顿分校M. stanley Whittlingham教授和日本化学家Akira Yoshino,以表彰其在锂离子电池的发展方面作出的贡献。The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 was awarded jointly to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino "for the development of lithium-ion batteries."


2018年,美国科学家Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith和英国科学家George P.Winter,他们利用进化的力量为人类造福。获奖的内容分别是研究酶的定向进化("for the directed evolution of enzymes")和研究多肽和抗体的噬菌体展示技术(for the phage display of peptides and antibodies)而获奖。获奖内容估计生科院毕业的同学都知道,因为这是生物化学课程、酶工程和分子生物学课程讲授的主要内容之一,有点恍惚了,生物学奖还是化学奖?呵呵。

2018.jpg

2017年,瑞士科学家Jacques Dubochet, 美国科学家Joachim Frank 和英国科学家 Richard Henderson获奖,获奖成果为“研发出冷冻电镜,用于溶液中生物分子结构的高分辨率测定”。The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 was awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution".

2017.png

2016年,法国科学家Jean-Pierre Sauvage,英国科学家Sir J. Fraser Stoddart和荷兰科学家Bernard L. Feringa获奖,获奖成果为分子机器的设计与合成The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 was awarded jointly to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines".

2016.jpg

2015,瑞典科学家Tomas Lindahl、美国科学家Paul Modrich和土耳其科学家Aziz Sancar获奖,获奖成果为“DNA修复机制研究The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 was awarded jointly to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair".

2015.jpg

2014年,美国科学家Eric Betzig、德国科学家Stefan W. Hell和美国科学家William E. Moerner获奖,获奖成果为研制出超分辨率荧光显微镜The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy".

2014.jpg

2013年,美国科学家Martin Karplus, Michael LevittArieh Warshel获奖,获奖成果为为复杂化学系统创立了多尺度模型The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013 was awarded jointly to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".

2013.jpg

2012年,美国科学家Robert J. LefkowitzBrian K. Kobilka获奖,获奖成果为“G蛋白偶联受体研究The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors".

2012.jpg

2011年,以色列科学家Dan Shechtman获奖,获奖成果为发现准晶体The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011 was awarded to Dan Shechtman "for the discovery of quasicrystals".

2011.jpg

2010年,美国科学家Richard F. Heck、日本科学家Ei-ichi NegishiAkiraSuzuki获奖,获奖成果为有机合成中钯催化交叉偶联研究。The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded jointly to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki "for palladium-catalyzed crosscouplings in organic synthesis".

2010.jpg

2009,美国科学家Venkatraman RamakrishnanThomas A. Steitz和以色列科学家Ada E. Yonath获奖,获奖成果为核糖体结构和功能研究The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 was awarded jointly to Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E.Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".

2009.jpg

2008年,美国科学家Osamu ShimomuraMartin ChalfieRoger Y. Tsien获奖,获奖成果为发现并发展了绿色荧光蛋白(GFPThe Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 was awarded jointly to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".

2008.jpg

2007年,德国科学家Gerhard Ertl获奖,获奖成果为表面化学研究The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007 was awarded to Gerhard Ertl "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces".

2007.jpg

2006年,美国科学家Roger D. Kornberg获奖,获奖成果为真核转录的分子基础The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription".

2006.jpg

2005年,法国科学家Yves Chauvin、美国科学家Robert H. GrubbsRichard R. Schrock获奖,获奖成果为烯烃复分解反应The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005 was awarded jointly to Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".

2005.jpg

2004年,以色列科学家Aaron CiechanoverAvram Hershko和美国科学家Irwin Rose获奖,获奖成果为泛素调节的蛋白质降解The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 was awarded jointly to Aaron Ciechanover,  Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".

2004.jpg

2003年,美国科学家Peter AgreRoderick MacKinnon获奖,获奖成果为发现细胞膜通道The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003 was awarded "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes" Jointly with one half to Peter Agre "for the discovery of water channels" and with one halfto Roderick MacKinnon "forstructural and mechanistic studies of ion channels".

2003.jpg

2002年,美国科学家John B. Fenn、日本科学家Koichi Tanaka和瑞士科学家Kurt Wüthrich获奖,获奖成果为生物大分子鉴定和结构分析方法The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 was awarded "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules" with one half jointly to John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka "for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" and the other half to Kurt Wüthrich "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".

2002.jpg

2001年,美国科学家William S. Knowles和日本科学家Ryoji Noyori和美国科学家K. Barry Sharpless,获奖成果为手性催化氢化反应手性催化氧化反应The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001 was divided, one half jointly to William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" and the other half to K. Barry Sharpless "for his work on chirally catalysedoxidation reactions".

2001.jpg

2000年,美国科学家Alan J. HeegerAlan G. MacDiarmid和日本科学家Hideki Shirakawa获奖,获奖成果为导电聚合物的发现The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000 was awarded jointly to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers".

2000.jpg

1999年,美国科学家Ahmed Zewail获奖,获奖成果为运用激光技术观测原子在分子中的运动The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999 was awarded to Ahmed Zewail "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".

1999.jpg

1998年,美国科学家Walter Kohn和英国科学家John A. Pople获奖,获奖成果为密度泛函理论波函数方法The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998 was divided equally between Walter Kohn "for his development of the density-functional theory" and John A. Pople "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry".

1998.jpg


相关专题:2019年诺贝尔奖

转载本文请联系原作者获取授权,同时请注明本文来自栗茂腾科学网博客。

链接地址:http://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-3319332-1201299.html?mobile=1

收藏

分享到:

当前推荐数:5
推荐到博客首页
网友评论0 条评论
确定删除指定的回复吗?
确定删除本博文吗?